International Issues Business Resource Materials

Entrepreneurship Law Editorial Team


Neal Asbury, Conscientious Equity: An American Entrepreneur’s Solutions to the World’s Greatest Problems (2010).

Abstract:  Conscientious Equity presents a groundbreaking vision, one that posits solutions to America's and the globe's most pressing problems in a kind of win-win scenario that truly changes the game. What Neal Asbury - a radio personality and successful entrepreneur - argues is that moving away from intransigent political ideologies and toward a world driven by fair international commerce allows us to address and in fact solve economic instability, the destruction of the environment, crushing poverty, and crippling corruption all over the planet. In this book, he lays out a plan for making Conscientious Equity happen, addressing all of the roadblocks and opportunities that lay before us.


Country Studies in Entrepreneurship: A Historical Perspective (Youssef Cassis & Ioanna Minoglou eds., 2006).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This volume combines a comparison of eight national experiences, spanning three continents. The chapters written by leading specialists combine historical archive-based work and synthetic theoretic surveys, reflecting the current state and new directions in research.

Leo Paul Dana, World Encyclopedia of Entrepreneurship (2011).

Abstract: This comprehensive reference work, written by some of the most eminent academics in the field, contains entries on numerous aspects of entrepreneurship. Topics covered include: business angels, Chinese clan entrepreneurship, criminal entrepreneurship, defining the entrepreneur, education, employee start-ups, entrepreneurship policy, ethics, ethnic minority entrepreneurship, family business, global entrepreneurship and trans-nationalism, indigenous entrepreneurship, international entrepreneurship, internationalization, involuntary entrepreneurship, and  Islam and entrepreneurship.


Product Description (from Amazon):  While vast amounts of corporate money, government policy and media time is directed at the social and ethical activities of large corporations, small businesses don’t generally attract the spotlight. This is wildly inappropriate, however, since upward of 90% of private businesses are small or medium sized. The first section of the book is a global round-up of research on ethics in small and medium sized enterprises from major regions of the world with contributions from Africa, Australasia, Europe, India, Latin America and North America. This section demonstrates the similarities and differences faced in this range of regions. In the second section smaller scale research projects presented from a variety of countries present both empirical and theoretical research in the area.

Sandra L. Fielden & Marilyn J. Davidson, International Research Handbook on Successful Women Entrepreneurs (2011).

Abstract :  This Handbook examines successful women small business owners in both developed and emergent countries around the globe and, in particular, focuses on women entrepreneur success stories. The contributors expertly identify the issues that underpin the success of women small business owners around the globe. Each chapter provides country specific review of women's position in employment and small business ownership and addresses the structural and contextual barriers. They also highlight two cases studies about successful women business owners, and consider strategies.

THE GLOBAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP INDEX (GEINDEX) (Zoltan J. Acs & Laszlo Szerb eds., 2009).

Abstract (from product description at   Three major international research projects that track data on global institutions in most countries do not track the firm formation process and do not correlate with measures of the firm formation process. For example, the self-employment rate published by the OECD correlates negatively with the Global Competitiveness Index, the Index of Economic Freedom and the Ease of Doing Business. What does this negative relationship mean? Does less economic freedom mean more entrepreneurship? What about the difficulty of starting a business? The Global Entrepreneurship Index (GEINDEX) addresses this paradox in the economic development literature. Building on previous measures of entrepreneurship, the authors define the basic requirements for construction of an entrepreneurship index. The index should be sufficiently complex to capture the multidimensional feature of entrepreneurship. There should be indicators referring to quality-related differences. The index should incorporate individual level as well as institutional variables. The Global Entrepreneurship Index contributes to our understanding of economic development by constructing an index (GEINDEX) that examines the essence of the contextual features of entrepreneurship and fills a gap in the measure of development. The authors develop a Global Entrepreneurship Index that offers a measure of the quality and quantity of the business formation process in 65 of the most important countries in the world. The GEINDEX captures the contextual feature of entrepreneurship by focusing on entrepreneurial attitudes, entrepreneurial activity and entrepreneurial aspirations.


Product Description (from Amazon):  This book presents a story of two Chinas - an entrepreneurial rural China and a state-controlled urban China. In the 1980s, rural China gained the upper hand, and the result was rapid as well as broad-based growth. In the 1990s, urban China triumphed. In the 1990s, the Chinese state reversed many of its productive rural experiments, with long-lasting damage to the economy and society. A weak financial sector, income disparity, rising illiteracy, productivity slowdowns, and reduced personal income growth are the product of the capitalism with Chinese characteristics of the 1990s and beyond. While GDP grew quickly in both decades, the welfare implications of growth differed substantially. The book uses the emerging Indian miracle to debunk the widespread notion that democracy is automatically anti-growth. The single biggest obstacle to sustainable growth and financial stability in China today is its poor political governance. As the country marks its 30th anniversary of reforms in 2008, China faces some of its toughest economic challenges and substantial vulnerabilities that require fundamental institutional reforms. 

International Differences in Entrepreneurship (Joshua Lerner & Antoinette Schoar, eds., 2010).

Abstract (from the book jacket): Surprisingly, there has been little systematic research or comparative analysis to show how the growth of entrepreneurship differs among countries in various stages of development. International Differences in Entrepreneurship fills this void by explaining how a country's institutional differences, cultural considerations, and personal characteristics can affect the role that entrepreneurs play in its economy. Developing an understanding of the origins of entrepreneurs as well as the choices they make and the complexity of their activities across countries and industries are of central importance to this volume. In addition, contributors consider how environmental factors of individual economies, such as market regulation, government subsidies for banks, and support for entrepreneurial culture affect the industry and the impact that entrepreneurs have on growth in developing nations."

International Entrepreneurship (Dean A. Shepherd & Jerome A. Katz eds., 2005).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Topics include: international social capital, technology sharing and foreign market learning in internationalizing entrepreneurial firms; export performance of new ventures in the Finnish and Indian Software industries; institutional and economic influences on Internet adoption and accelerated firm internationalization; the role of strategic adaptation and networking capabilities in explaining new venture growth in international markets; illustration of the "small world" phenomenon to discuss network analysis tools that can be applied to international entrepreneurship research; an institutional perspective and cross-national comparison of incubated firms; a discussion of the means to achieving excellence in international entrepreneurship education; the export intensity of venture capital backed companies; and capability development, learning and growth in international entrepreneurial firms within China.

Dafna Kariv, Entrepreneurship: An International Introduction (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book places an emphasis both on the core processes and practices of entrepreneurship, as well as demonstrating the impact of complex, local environments in shaping the processes of entrepreneurship. It covers topics including: the main processes of entrepreneurial venture creation, innovation and growth; operational steps characterizing processes of entrepreneurship; establishing and realizing entrepreneurial ventures; and the core processes and practices of entrepreneurship. The book utilizes both case studies and interviews with entrepreneurs from across the globe, and emphasizes an international approach to entrepreneurship.

Tarun Khanna, Billions of Entrepreneurs: How China and India Are Reshaping Their Futures and Yours (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): China and India are home to one-third of the world's population. And they're undergoing social and economic revolutions that are capturing the best minds--and money--of Western business. In "Billions of Entrepreneurs," Tarun Khanna examines the entrepreneurial forces driving China's and India's trajectories of development. He shows where these trajectories overlap and complement one another--and where they diverge and compete. He also reveals how Western companies can participate in this development. Through intriguing comparisons, the author probes important differences between China and India in areas such as information and transparency, the roles of capital markets and talent, public and private property rights, social constraints on market forces, attitudes toward expatriates abroad and foreigners at home, entrepreneurial and corporate opportunities, and the importance of urban and rural communities. He explains how these differences will influence China's and India's future development, what the two countries can learn from each other, and how they will ultimately reshape business, politics, and society in the world around them. Engaging and incisive, this book is a critical resource for anyone working in China or India or planning to do business in these two countries.


Product Description (from Amazon):  Often considered one of the major forces behind economic growth and development, the entrepreneurial firm can accelerate the speed of innovation and dissemination of new technologies, thus increasing a country's competitive edge in the global market. As a result, cultivating a strong culture of entrepreneurial thinking has become a primary goal throughout the world. In spite of this, there has been little systematic research or comparative analysis to show how the growth of entrepreneurship differs among countries in various stages of development. Developing an understanding of the origins of entrepreneurs as well as the choices they make and the complexity of their activities across countries and industries is of central importance to this volume. In addition, contributors consider how environmental factors of individual economies, such as market regulation, government subsidies for banks, and support for entrepreneurial culture affect industry and the impact that entrepreneurs have on growth in developing nations.


Product Description (from Amazon):  The majority of SMEs are operating in a networked business environment, and these networks extend beyond national and cultural boundaries. Within these networks, growth takes various routes and forms. Instead of linear, positive growth, international growth is often more cyclical, including periods of stagnation and withdrawal, even exits.

Gordian Rättich & Evi Hartmann, Four Essays on International Entrepreneurship (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Internationalization of business activities has become one of the main fields of interest in management research, influencing a broad range of academic areas such as strategic management, organizational science, operations management or economic institutions. In recent years the pace of internationalization has even increased. With his four essays on distinctive levels of International Entrepreneurship, Gordian Rättich provides an answer on some of the most essential challenges for entrepreneurial firms and shows how social groups, economic institutions and nations manage to overcome the challenges of internationalization and gain competitive advantages.


Abstract (from product description at   This book analyzes the relative importance of small firms in developed Western nations and Eastern Europe, identifying their exact role and how this role has evolved over the past fifteen years. It reveals that there has been a consistent shift away from large firms and toward small enterprises within the manufacturing sectors of all Western countries, while the role of small firms in Eastern European nations has been remarkably restricted, suggesting that a major challenge for reform in Central and Eastern Europe is to create the strong entrepreneurial sector that exists in the West.

Sustaining Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Lessons in Policy and Industry Innovations From Germany and India (Max Keilbach, Jagannadha Pawan Tamavada & David B. Audretsch, eds., 2010).

Abstract :  Academic research on developed countries has scientifically evaluated the role of entrepreneurship on economic growth, market expansion, commercializing innovation, and reducing unemployment. In this research, regions or industries with higher rates of entrepreneurship show higher levels of innovation and economic growth. The literature on entrepreneurship and innovation has largely ignored developing countries, despite the positive results from new venture investments in India, China, and elsewhere. This volume bridges this gap by bringing together research by scholars in Germany and India, whose analysis of entrepreneurship, innovation, and economic development in their respective countries reveals commonalities. Covering such timely issues as R&D and labor policies and including case examples from the chemical, biotech, and IT industries, the authors offer insight into the entrepreneurial process. The volume concludes with a discussion of the global implications for entrepreneurship research and policy.


Product Description (from Amazon):  This book gives an overview of approaches to internationalization experienced by smaller manufacturing enterprises over an approximately 30-year period. Broadly divided into three parts, the first part of the book presents the conceptual and theoretical framework concerning the internationalization of smaller manufacturing enterprises. It focuses on the individual aspects of internationalization as presented in the original study, and which were tracked over the past 30 years. Factors leading to internationalization will be examined in detail. The contributions of internationalization to various strategic and operational aspects of management of smaller manufacturing enterprises will be also examined. The second part focuses on the actual experiences of systematically selected enterprises in the form of follow-up research cases, primarily in the context of the original study. It presents about 10 research cases which are supplemented with a minimum of two cases each from Denmark, Sweden, and the Czech Republic. The third part presents an integration and summary of the findings and observation of the entire internationalization process among smaller manufacturing enterprises. It also examines the important issues of internationalization faced today by smaller manufacturing enterprises participating in supply and value chains.

The Theory and Practice of Entrepreneurship: Frontiers in European Entrepreneurship Research (David Smallbone et al. eds., 2010). 

Abstract (adapted from This book provides a fresh perspective on contemporary research in the field of entrepreneurship and small business, considering both theory and application. Drawing together leading-edge European research, the expert contributors apply a variety of research methods to a number of specific issues - including the entrepreneurial climate at universities, the role of knowledge and experience in the internationalization of knowledge-intensive firms, the links between entrepreneurial orientation and performance in micro-sized firms, and organizational entrepreneurship. In so doing, the book sheds new light on the key role played by entrepreneurship as an engine for regional development. Researchers and policymakers will find this book invaluable.

Vivek Wadhwa, The Immigrant Exodus: Why America is Losing the Global Race to Capture Entrepreneurial Talent (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Many of the United States’ most innovative entrepreneurs have been immigrants, from Andrew Carnegie, Alexander Graham Bell, and Charles Pfizer to Sergey Brin, Vinod Khosla, and Elon Musk. Nearly half of Fortune 500 companies and one-quarter of all new small businesses were founded by immigrants, generating trillions of dollars annually, employing millions of workers, and helping establish the United States as the most entrepreneurial, technologically advanced society on earth. Now, Vivek Wadhwa, an immigrant tech entrepreneur turned academic with appointments at Duke, Stanford, Emory, and Singularity Universities, draws on his new Kauffman Foundation research to show that the United States is in the midst of an unprecedented halt in high-growth, immigrant-founded start-ups. He argues that increased competition from countries like China and India and US immigration policies are leaving some of the most educated and talented entrepreneurial immigrants with no choice but to take their innovation elsewhere. The consequences to our economy are dire; our multi-trillion dollar loss will be the gain of our global competitors. With his signature fearlessness and clarity, Wadhwa offers a concise framework for understanding the Immigrant Exodus and offers a recipe for reversal and rapid recovery.

Antonella Zucchella & Paolo Scabini, International Entrepreneurship: Theoretical Foundations and Empirical Analysis (2007).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Over the last decade, international entrepreneurship has become a key emerging issue in international business studies. A growing number of recent contributions has made the subject topical and lively but it lacks a common framework. This book starts from the foundations of the subject, rooted in entrepreneurship, strategic management and international business studies, and proposes an innovative and integrated interpretative framework. The approach is applied to case studies, in order to reconcile theories and practices of international entrepreneurship.


Sabrina Lucia Di Addario & Daniela Vuri, Entrepreneurship and Market Size: The Case of Young College Graduates in Italy (Bank of Italy Temi di Discussione, Working Paper No. 775, 2010), available at

Abstract: The authors analyze empirically the effects of urbanization on Italian college graduates' work possibilities as entrepreneurs three years after graduation. They find that doubling the population density of the province of work reduces the chances of being an entrepreneur by 2-3 percentage points. This result holds after controlling for regional fixed effects and is robust to instrumenting urbanization. Provincial competition, urban amenities and disamenities, cost of labor, earning differentials between employees and self-employed workers, unemployment rates and value added per capita account for more than half of the negative urbanization penalty. The authors’ result cannot be explained by the presence of negative differentials in returns to entrepreneurship between the most and the least densely populated areas either. In fact, as long as they succeed in entering the most densely populated markets, young entrepreneurs are able to reap the benefits of urbanization externalities: doubling the population density of the province of work increases entrepreneurs' net monthly earnings by 2-3 per cent.

Oya Pinar Ardic et al., Small and Medium Enterprises: A Cross-Country Analysis with a New Data Set (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper Series, 2011) available at 

Abstract (from author): In the aftermath of the global financial crisis of 2008-2009, there has been an increased interest in the role of small and medium enterprises in job creation and economic growth. However the lack of consistent indicators at the country level restricts extensive cross-country analyses of lending to small and medium enterprises. This paper introduces a new dataset to fill this gap in the small and medium enterprise data landscape. In addition, it provides the first set of results of analyses with this new dataset, predicting the global small and medium enterprise lending volume to be $10 trillion. The bulk of this volume, 70 percent, is in high-income countries. On average, small and medium enterprise loans constitute 13 percent of gross domestic product in developed countries and 3 percent in developing countries. Note that although a unique small and medium enterprise definition does not exist, differences in definitions across countries are not statistically significant in explaining the differences in small and medium enterprise lending volumes.

Erkko Autio, Gerard George & Oliver Alexy, International Entrepreneurship and Capability Development-Qualitative Evidence and Future Research Directions. 35 Entrepreneurship Theory & Prac.11 (2011).

Abstract:  In this article, the authors explore how new capabilities emerge and solidify in new ventures that are faced with fundamental uncertainty from their environment. To do so, they draw from the organizational and entrepreneurial literature on cognition and capabilities. Using initial qualitative evidence from a multifirm study in the context of new venture internationalization, the authors develop a cognition-based model of capability emergence in new ventures. The findings extend the capability development and learning implications of internationalization to the fundamental character of organizing processes in start-ups. Moreover, the article derives avenues for future entrepreneurship research on the origins and evolution of capabilities in new ventures.

Beem H. Beeka & Mike Rimmington, Entrepreneurship as a Career Option for African Youths, 16 J. Dev. Entrepreneurship 145 (2011).

Abstract: This paper presents findings from a pilot study of four African entrepreneurs, all who started their business as young people. Their narratives, enhanced by the inclusion of significant events derived by the use of the critical incident technique, provide useful oral insights into their entrepreneurial heuristics and behavior. These reveal key influences and critical issues that affect the young African's decision to start a business and also perspectives into the nature of entrepreneurship in Africa. This paper concludes that the dichotomy between push and pull entrepreneurship is oversimplified, and social structures such as class, education and family background impact on ideas, opportunities, resources, skills and motivation. But most importantly, entrepreneurship can survive in an environment with many constraints, because career choices are influenced by the youth entrepreneur's perception, decision-making abilities and experiences. Implications are drawn for the development of young entrepreneurs in Africa.

Chenoy Ceil, Does India Need More Entrepreneurs or Managers (Delhi University Enclave, Campus Law Center, 2011), available at

Abstract (adapted from author): India, a culturally-diverse country with several different ethnicities, has an enormous population base that consists of different people with innovative thinking and wide intellectual skills. India's growth rate has already reached the 8 percent mark and with time one can only hope that it touches the double digit figure. Entrepreneurs are the need of the hour as they can bring along widespread changes in the industry and create job opportunities for the masses. Entrepreneurial skills need to be nurtured in India as they can be the baton holder for India's development. Managers too have to play their role in India's development but they can never supersede the role of an entrepreneur. Each year, there are thousands of managers graduating from B-schools. But hardly anyone of them has the risk taking skills that is required for delving into sole business enterprises. Managers are required to manage a business entity and that is all they are capable of. However, an entrepreneur has the managerial skills as well as the innovative and risk taking skills instilled within him. In the present world, India definitely needs more entrepreneurs to capture the rising possibilities of business development in India. Promoting entrepreneurship means encouraging people to be self-reliant in taking economic decisions and creating wealth and employment. Managers do play their role in any economy and every business concern but India at its present juncture definitely needs more entrepreneurs than managers.

Pawan Chugan, Aspiring to Go Global: Unitech Engineers (2012), available at

Abstract (from author): Unitech Engineers, a manufacturer of high tensile fasteners, was established by the Modi brothers – one a commerce graduate and the other a technocrat with engineering and managerial degrees. From a small workshop, the company gradually crossed many hurdles, and by investing in technological upgradation and quality assurance systems, it grew to become one of the leading manufacturers of fasteners. With a fairly secured position in the domestic market and infusion of new blood in the management team, the company was now inspired from its success and was aspiring to expand its horizons beyond India. Ms Kruti Modi, the younger generation of the family, after doing a careful international market research decided that Unitech Engineers should now start exporting. Based on the primary research for international market selection Ms Modi had zeroed in on South Africa to begin overseas operations. The question, however, now aroused as how to approach the South African market and select a suitable and effective market entry strategy for a sustainable and scalable overseas business? The primary objective of the case is to make management graduates understand the natural progression of a first generation entrepreneurial venture. They can also understand various hurdles a company passes through and the kind of decisions one has to make. Students will appreciate that investments in technology and quality systems are a must if a company has to progress over a certain level and then aspire to go global. The issues involved in this case are about the vision of an entrepreneur, various stages through which a new business moves, investment options available to an entrepreneur and his ability to foresee the change in the market dynamics, his investment decisions (capacity expansion, technological upgradation, takeovers, etc.), and strategies to sustain and expand the business. With the inspirations from the success in the domestic market, the firm was now determined to go global over a period of time. Further, case highlights the need for international market research one has to do in order to select a country for export and underscores the market selection procedure for overseas marketing. The factors one needs to consider and how they are different from doing business domestically are discussed for determining suitable marketing strategies.

Paul D. Ellis, Social Ties and International Entrepreneurship: Opportunities and Constraints Affecting Firm Internationalization, 42 J. Int’l Bus. Studies 99 (2011).

Abstract (from author):  International entrepreneurship involves the identification and exploitation of opportunities for international exchange. Yet little is known about the entrepreneurial methods used for opportunity recognition. While previous work emphasizes effects operating at the level of the business network, I propose that the recognition of exchange opportunities is a highly subjective process, shaped by entrepreneurs' existing ties with others. Based on interview data collected from 41 managers, I develop a comprehensive measure for classifying different methods of opportunity recognition. I then use this measure to classify 665 international exchange ventures set up by entrepreneurs in four Chinese cities. In contrast with past research I find virtually no role for blind luck. Although the majority of exchange opportunities were discovered rather than sought, these discoveries were intentional rather than accidental. I also find that entrepreneurs' idiosyncratic connections with others both promote and inhibit international exchange. Tie-based opportunities lead to higher-quality and more valuable exchanges that are constrained in terms of geographic, psychic and linguistic distance. From this I conclude that entrepreneurial networks have distinct opportunity horizons that limit the reach of tie-based exchanges and potentially lead to sub-optimal internationalization trajectories.

X. Liu Filatotchev, J. Lu & M. Wright, Knowledge Spillovers through Human Mobility Across National Borders: Evidence from Zhongguancun Science Park in China, 40 Research Pol’y 453 (2011).

Abstract: This paper investigates the impact of returnee entrepreneurs and their knowledge spillovers on innovation in high-tech firms in China. Using panel data for 1318 high-tech firms in Beijing Zhongguancun Science Park (ZSP) we find that returnee entrepreneurs create a significant spillover effect that promotes innovation in other local high-tech firms. The extent of this spillover effect is positively moderated by the non-returnee firm’s absorptive capacity approximated by the skill level of employees. Multinational enterprises’ R&D activities positively affect the innovation intensity of non-returnee firms only when these local firms possess the sufficient level of absorptive capacity. Our findings have important implications for policy-makers and practitioners.

Isaura Flores, Marilyn Young & Jim Tarter, The Transnational Entrepreneur: An Initial Overview of Factors Affecting International Strategies, 10 Int’l J. Bus. Strategy  207 (2010).

Abstract: A review of the literature of an emerging field related to transnational entrepreneurship is presented. The research is based on three case studies. Building on the original Bartlett and Ghoshal framework, the authors describe how transnational entrepreneurs select international strategies based on local conditions or low cost pr essures. Results indicate that the same factors that affect the strategy choice of multi-national companies, also affect the transnational entrepreneur strategy selection. Future research includes an analysis of barriers to the choice of strategies.Frank Jan De

Navid Ghannad & Svante Andersson, The Influence of the Entrepreneur's Background on the Behaviour and Development of Born Globals' Internationalisation Processes, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus.136 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from journal): While much of the research on small firm internationalisation has concentrated on export strategies, little attention has been paid to understanding the process and conditions under which the entrepreneur identifies and exploits an opportunity. The aim of this study is to explore the relationship between the entrepreneur's prior life story and the development and behaviour of his or her born global firm. Six years of intense qualitative field research, including 108 interviews from three entrepreneurial 'born global' firms are compared and contrasted within the paper’s theoretical framework. In this study empirical evidence suggests that a person's childhood and prior life story directly influences the behaviour of the entrepreneur. The authors propose that different types of entrepreneurs are important factors to understand firms' different internationalisation patterns. Depending on the backgrounds of the entrepreneurs, they developed preferences, skills, and especially desires that will affect the total behaviour of their future organisations.

Graaf & Arnd Mehrtens, SME Role Models on a Global Market: How International Entrepreneurs Can Thrive on Social Responsibility (2011), available at

Abstract:  In this paper the authors focus on the institutional component of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in entrepreneurship by analyzing the role of governance systems in SMEs. The authors argue that a category of medium-sized companies referred to as 'Hidden Champions' can be regarded as role models of CSR, combining an exceptional economic performance with an excellent contribution to local communities and strong ties with all stakeholders, including employees. Based on this the authors develop some propositions on CSR in SMEs. For example, their review suggests that local self-assurance and a strong product focus enable a company to develop a strong CSR track record combined with a strong position on international markets. This could imply that globalization does not have to lead to a race to the bottom. On the contrary, to be successful in the long run, CSR-awareness for international entrepreneurs seems to be critical.

David M. Hart, Immigrant Entrepreneurship and Internationalization and Globalization of Successful U.S. High-Tech Start-Ups (George Mason Univ. School of Public Policy Research Paper No. 15, 2011), available at

Abstract: Immigrant entrepreneurs play an important role in the U.S. high-tech sector and may advance the country’s collaborative advantage through internationalization and globalization of start-ups. This study explores whether immigrant founding of U.S. high-tech firms, conditional on survival and sustained growth, contributes to their pursuing internationalized or globalized strategies. The strategies are defined with regard to their acquisition and deployment of financial, human, and social capital across a single border (for international strategies) or multiple borders spanning geographically-dispersed and culturally-diverse countries (for globalized strategies). A set of twelve matched-firm case studies across four high-tech sectors form the main data source along with a survey sample of approximately 1300 successful high-tech firms. We find that native-founded firms in our case study group were as likely as immigrant-founded firms to pursue internationalized strategies, but the immigrant-founded firms appeared more likely to adopt such strategies earlier in their history and were more likely to set up substantial operations outside the U.S., rather than partnerships or marketing arrangements.

Xiaohong He, Theory and Practice of Emerging Market Firm Internationalisation: Perspectives from Chinese Non-State-Owned Entrepreneurship Ventures, 6 J. Int'l Bus. & Entrepren. 107 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This paper draws from the disciplines of international business, strategic management, network-based organisational learning, and international entrepreneurship to analyse the internationalisation of entrepreneurship ventures in emerging markets, specifically focusing on whether this process differs from the experience of Anglo-American firms. Emphasis is placed on how emerging market entrepreneurship ventures internationalise in terms of actors involved, methods used, and motivating influences, as well as geographic and temporal factors. Examining cases in China through interviews and nationwide survey data, the paper identifies unique characteristics of emerging market firm internationalisation. Present findings suggest important challenges and opportunities as more entrepreneurial ventures from emerging markets enter the global marketplace.

Marian V. Jones et al., International Entrepreneurship Research (1989–2009): A Domain Ontology and Thematic Analysis, 26 J. Bus. Venturing 632 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): This article explores the domain of international entrepreneurship (IE) research by thematically mapping and assessing the intellectual territory of the field. Extant reviews show that the body of IE knowledge is growing, and while notable contributions towards theoretical and methodological integration are evident, the field is described as phenomenally based, potentially fragmented and suffering from theoretical paucity. Premising that IE is positioned at the nexus of internationalization and entrepreneurship where entrepreneurial behavior involves cross-border business activity, or is compared across countries, the article identifies 323 relevant journal articles published in the period 1989–2009. It inventories the domain of IE to provide a relevant and comprehensive organization of its research. This involves examining the subject matter of IE research, and inductively synthesizing and categorizing it into major themes and sub-themes. In so doing, the authors offer a reliable, ontologically constructed and practically useful resource. From this base, they discuss the phenomena, issues, inconsistencies and interim debates on which new theory in IE may be built and research may be conducted. The authors conclude that IE has several coherent thematic areas and is rich in potential for future research and theory development.

James Katzenstein & Barbara R. Chrispin, Social Entrepreneurship and a New Model for International Development in the 21st Century, 16 J. Dev. Entrepren. 87 (2011).

Abstract: In the last decade or so, there has been a growing interest in an area researchers are calling social entrepreneurship, a movement spearheaded by individuals with a desire to make the world a better place. This paper describes the structure and process of international development in Africa from the perspective of a social entrepreneur. The authors address the opportunities and challenges faced by social entrepreneurs as they attempt to affect large-scale social change. The result of this study is a unique development model that provides tools for the social entrepreneur to address problems and build capacity and sustainability within the African context.

Xiaohui Liu, Jiangyong Lu, Igor Filatotchev, Trevor Buck & MikeWright, Returnee Entrepreneurs, Knowledge Spillovers and Innovation in High-Tech Firms in Emerging Economies, 41(7) J. Int’l Bus. Stud. 1183 (2010).

Abstract (from authors): Using panel data analysis, this paper investigates the impact of returnee entrepreneurs, foreign direct investment (FDI) intensity and inter-firm employee mobility on innovation in Chinese high-tech firms. International technology spillovers and internal R&D efforts are found to jointly determine the innovation performance of Chinese high-tech firms, and we report that the presence of returnee entrepreneurs positively affects innovation. In addition, there are significant knowledge spillover effects associated with returnees and multinational enterprise (MNE) employee mobility, and the effects of these two components of international human mobility on local firms' innovation are mutually reinforcing. We also present the distinctive result that FDI intensity in an industry has a negative impact on local innovation. The findings have important implications for practitioners and policymakers.

R. Marshall, Conceptualizing the International For-Profit Social Entrepreneur, 98 J. Bus. Ethics 183 (2011).

Abstract:  This article looks at social entrepreneurs that operate for- profit and internationally, offering that international for-profit social entrepreneurs (IFPSE) are of a unique type. Initially, this article utilizes the entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, and international entrepreneurship literatures to develop a definition of the IFPSE. Next, a proposed model of the IFPSE is built utilizing the dimensions of mindset, opportunity recognition, social networks, and outcomes. Case studies of three IFPSE are then used to examine the proposed model. In the final section, findings from the case studies are used to examine the proposed model and more fully elucidate the dimensions of the IFPSE.

Sarfraz Mian et al., Building Knowledge Regions in Developing Nations with Emerging Innovation Infrastructure: Evidence from Mexico and Pakistan, 2 Int’l J. Innovation and Regional Dev. 304 (2011).  

Abstract (from author): This paper studies the efforts of building knowledge regions in emerging economy nations with special reference to Mexico and Pakistan. It starts with the introduction of an analytical framework developed for assessing knowledge regions. This is followed by case studies exploring the emerging innovation infrastructure appearing in several metropolitan regions of the two countries (five in Mexico and three in Pakistan) aimed at developing knowledge-based economies. A comparative analysis of the existing structures and policies of each case shows that efforts have been made primarily through university and research centre initiatives, while support programs such as science parks, incubators and other government incentives seem to have only limited effectiveness except when used in regions with a well developed industrial and service base and related entrepreneurial culture. Overall, there are gaps in innovation infrastructure development due to scarce resources, as well as in most cases, absence of entrepreneurial culture, both considered longer term undertakings. While providing insights into the challenges faced by developing nations when building knowledge regions, the paper lays out what can be learned from both countries' experiences and recommends appropriate policy actions.

M. B. Neace, Entrepreneurs in Emerging Economies: Creating Trust, Social Capital, and Civil Society, 565 Annals Am. Acad. Pol. & Soc. Sci. 148-161 (1999).

Abstract:  This article reports on findings from interviews with fledgling entrepreneurs in four former Soviet republics (Belarus, Kazakhstan, Russia, and Ukraine). Analysis of the interviews was conducted against a backdrop of concepts from the literature of civil society, social capital, and entrepreneurship as applied to small business development. The main finding of the study was the unanimous claim by the entrepreneurs that trust was one of two prime requisites for success, and this in societies that had been culturally depraved for many years. From this finding, two models were developed incorporating civil society, social capital, and trust to more fully depict the entrepreneurial environment.

John L. Orcutt & Hong Shen, Shaping China’s Innovation Future: University Technology Transfer in Transition (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Since the 1980s, China has worked to develop the technology commercialization capacity of its universities. Progress has occurred, but university technology commercialization remains on the periphery of Chinese economic development. Because university technology commercialization is predominantly a 'law-based' strategy, the authors examine whether China's legal system adequately supports such efforts. Since the law does not operate in isolation, the authors conduct their analysis through the lens of China's overall innovation system. This holistic approach enables the authors first to provide a more accurate analysis of the Chinese legal system's ability to support university technology commercialization and also to generate useful insights on the strengths, weaknesses and future of the country's commercialization efforts. 

Valle Santos-Alvarez & Teresa Garcia-Merino, The Role of the Entrepreneur in Identifying International Expansion as a Strategic Opportunity, 30 Int’l J. Info. Mgmt. 512 (2010).

Abstract: This research explores business internationalization as a process of recognizing and exploiting business opportunities in an international context and uses Spain's natural stone industry as a case study. We differentiate internationalization into two stages: opportunity identification and subsequent opportunity exploitation. We focus on the initial identification stage to determine the impact of entrepreneurs’ cognitive variables when gathering relevant information for internationalization of the firm, highlighting the role of entrepreneurs’ alertness, the centre of interest, causal logic, and prior experience. We also examine the importance of the entrepreneur's environment, social networks, and institutional setting. In our empirical analysis, we find that although interested in internationalization, entrepreneurs in the natural stone industry devote very little time and effort to gathering information. As a result, decisions related to internationalization are restricted by uncertainty and a poor understanding of the appeal, barriers, and available support services.

Martine Spence, Jouhaina Ben Boubaker Gherib, Viviane Ondoua Biwole, Sustainable Entrepreneurship: Is Entrepreneurial Will Alone Enough? A North-South Comparison, 99 J. Bus. Ethics 335 (2011).

Abstract: Based on an analysis of 44 cases in Canada, Tunisia, and Cameroon, this research attempts to determine the fundaments of sustainable entrepreneurship (SE) in an international perspective and to shed the light on the potential impact of economic, institutional, and cultural dimensions upon diverse levels of sustainability in small- and medium-size firms (SMEs). Neo-institutional and entrepreneurship theories were combined in an integrative conceptual model to fully embrace the meanings and practices of SE and to question the 'culture free' argument of some prescriptions as well as some international programs. The analysis of the rationale behind entrepreneurs committed to sustainability in the three countries compared to less engaged firms shows that entrepreneurs' individual values are crucial in all cases. Socio-cultural specificities and institutional realities can, however, be more or less inductive to the adoption of sustainable practices in SMEs. This study also demonstrates that external stimuli are needed in Tunisia and Cameroon to reach the same environmental involvement as found in Canada. Moreover, support programs to assist SMEs with the adoption of sustainable practices and communication about the issue have to be tailored to the entrepreneur's motives, the firms' levels of openness to sustainability, the socio-cultural practices already embedded, and the countries' priorities. Implications for policy, management, and research are also discussed.

Lawrence J. Trautman, American Entrepreneur in China: Potholes and Roadblocks on the Silk Road to Prosperity (2012), available at

Abstract (from author): In many ways, China is the new frontier for entrepreneurship; perceived to be: a logical primary source of economical manufacturing, raw materials, component parts, and as a major end market. China may also represent the most likely future competition for many American industries as well as our major trading partner. Increased commerce between the United States and The People’s Republic of China (“PRC”) demands that U.S. entrepreneurs understand the basic foundation for doing business in the PRC. An increasing demand for United States citizens to engage in commerce, or sit on boards dealing with significant exposure to Chinese developments has also become a reality. A comprehensive and exhaustive treatment of this subject is beyond the scope of this article. However, an identification of some major issues, with suggestions for further research, is attempted. Hopefully, constructive thinking will result from an overview of how conducting business is fundamentally different in the PRC along with an examination of relevant legal and corporate governance issues.

Dave Valliere & Rein Peterson, Entrepreneurship and Economic Growth: Evidence from Emerging and Developed Countries, 21(5/6) Entrepreneurship & Regional Dev. 459 (2009).

Abstract (from authors): This paper presents an extension to the economic growth model developed by Wong, Ho, and Autio (2005), to reflect differences in the economic effects of opportunity and necessity-based entrepreneurship in both emerging and developed countries. Data from 44 countries for the years 2004 and 2005, as collected by Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) research and Global Competitiveness Report (GCR) research, are used to identify predictors of GDP growth for emerging and developed nations. The GEM data are used to determine the effect of different types of entrepreneurship on GDP growth. The GCR data operationalize additional control variables suggested by three economic growth theories: new economic geography, endogenous growth theory and national systems of innovation. This contribution to the literature suggests that, in developed countries, a significant portion of economic growth rates can be attributed to high-expectation entrepreneurs exploiting national investments in knowledge creation and regulatory freedom. However, in emerging countries this effect is absent. It is hypothesized that a threshold exists for entrepreneurs to gain access to the formal economy, below which entrepreneurial contributions act through informal mechanisms.

Vivek Wadhwa et al., The Grass is Indeed Greener in India and China for Returnee Entrepreneurs: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs – Part VI (2011), available at

Abstract: Previous research had documented that 52% of Silicon Valley's startups were founded by immigrants; that immigrants were contributing to 25% of WIPO PCT applications filed from the U.S.; the backlog of skilled immigrants waiting for permanent resident visas had increased to over 1 million people. The authors predicted a reverse brain drain, and followed this up with interviews with returnees and foreign students in the U.S.

This research goes one step further. This is based on a survey of returnee entrepreneurs to India and China. The authors wanted to learn how the entrepreneurship landscape in India and China compares to the U.S.; why these entrepreneurs returned; what their perceptions of the entrepreneurial climate in their home countries were; what the advantages and disadvantages of working in India and China were over working in the U.S; and what types of ties they maintained to the U.S. The returnees say that the grass is indeed greener in India and China for entrepreneurs.

Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian & Francis Daniel Siciliano, Then and Now: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part VII (Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Research Paper; Stanford Public Law Working Paper, No. 2159875, 2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): The period of unprecedented expansion of immigrant-led entrepreneurship that characterized the 1980s and 1990s has come to a close. Today, the growth rate of immigrant-founded companies nationwide, at 24.3 percent, has plateaued. In the high-tech hub of Silicon Valley, the proportion of immigrant-founded companies has dropped from 52.4 percent during 1995-2005 to 43.9 percent during 2006-2012. Immigrant founders of engineering and technology companies have employed roughly 560,000 workers and generated an estimated $63 billion dollars in sales during this time. While the rate of growth of immigrant entrepreneurship has stagnated, these numbers nonetheless underscore the continuing importance of high-skilled immigrants to the maintenance and expansion of the national economy. These findings are interestingly complex, since the two major skilled-immigrant groups — Indian and Chinese — are starting companies at higher rates than they did previously. Historically and today, the United States continues to benefit directly from the contributions of such immigrants. Far from expendable, high-skilled immigrants will remain a critical asset for maintaining U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. 

Shaker A. Zahra, International expansion of U.S. manufacturing family businesses; the effect of ownership and involvement, 18 J. Bus. Venturing 495-512 (2003). 

Abstract:   Family firms play an important role in today's global economy. However, limited empirical research has identified factors that spur these firms' internationalization. Highlighting the altruism that pervades family firms, this exploratory study examines the individual and interactive effects of family ownership and involvement on subsequent internationalization of a firm's operations. Results from the analyses of 409 U.S. manufacturing firms show that family ownership and involvement in the firm as well as the interaction of this ownership with family involvement are significantly and positively associated with internationalization. The implications of the findings for research and managerial practice are discussed.

Algis Zvirblis & Antanas Buracas, Multicriteria Evaluation of National Entrepreneurship in Newly EU Countries, 4 Int’l J. Eco. Sci. & App. Res.79 (2011).

Abstract: When evaluating entrepreneurship at the national level, the influence of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) on the state economic development is analyzed. Also, the impact of significant factors (goods and services, competitiveness, innovations, diversification, clusterization, creating social value, etc.) on SMEs working effectiveness is investigated. When focused on the national economic competitiveness as a general criterion, the principles and models for consolidated quantitative estimation of national entrepreneurship development level are applicable for newly admitted EU countries (on account of some of their specific factors). The results of assessing the entrepreneurship level in 2009-2010 and the nearest future are presented in this study using Lithuania’s data as a typical case. The multicriteria estimation process includes the identification and expert examination, in addition to quantifiable assessment of essential primary indicators. Moreover, the pillar indexes underlying them and entrepreneurship development index using the significance parameters of primary indicators are determined by the authors. The relative impact of the different primary and partial criteria is taken into account by calculation of the integrated criterion-level index, which allows us to evaluate more adequate differences in newly EU countries. To improve the (World Economic Forum) WEF methodology, the authors are using various, not predetermined, weights of primary indicators, also indexes of performance and propose a more adequate differentiation of significances for the pillars. The complex evaluation of the primary indicators influencing business may be used for the strategic solutions reasoning.

Online Resources

“How to Start an Export Business,” The Entrepreneur School, Home Page.

International Entrepreneurship,

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