Legal Skills Instruction Business Resource Materials

Entrepreneurship Law Editorial Team


Rhonda  M. Abrams,  Hire Your First Employee: The Entrepreneurs Guide to Finding, Choosing, and Leading Great People (2010). 

Abstract: Too much work and not enough time? You are at a point in your business when you need help. Maybe an administrative assistant. Maybe a sales person. And, it's a fact: to experience meaningful growth, you will have to hire. It's a big step, but this fact-filled guide will help you take the leap. From how-to's and must-do's to checklists and legal advice, with Hire Your First Employee, you'll have what you need to build a team with confidence.


Abstract (from product description at  Enterprising individuals and business managers often feel that they need to acquire new skills and brush up on existing ones in order to achieve targets, make money and avoid making elementary mistakes.  This book provides guidance on key skills such as selling, presenting, and negotiating, and advice on developing self-confidence and learning to work creatively.  

Anita F. Brattina, Diary of a Small Business Owner: A Personal Account of How I Built a Profitable Business (1996).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Anita F. Brattina chronicles the trials, tribulations and triumphs of becoming a successful entrepreneur in the re-release of her book, Diary of a Small Business Owner. Documenting the first eleven years of her business, Brattina gives the reader an insider’s view of her experiences as the founder of a start-up enterprise. She candidly reveals how her company, Direct Response Marketing, Inc., grew from potential clients listed on a writing tablet to a $1 million enterprise. The book highlights her experiences as the first business to receive a PowerLink panel and the impact that the PowerLink year had on her business operations.

Paul Burns, Entrepreneurship and Small Business: Start-Up, Growth and Maturity (3rd ed. 2010).

Abstract (from Amazon): This book examines how firms develop from start-up, both tracing growth and exploring failure. It studies entrepreneurs - what motivates them, how they manage and lead, and how certain defining characteristics they possess can help shape the businesses they run. The book also outlines good management practice for students and encourages and develops entrepreneurial skills. Clearly structured and accessibly presented, the comprehensive coverage includes accounting control and decision-making, as well as chapters on family businesses, corporate, international and social entrepreneurship. Case insights, long case studies and discussion scenarios are used to practically demonstrate how concepts are implemented in successful small and growing companies. Burns' text is ideal for undergraduates, MBA students, and students taking specialist postgraduate modules on Entrepreneurship, Enterprise, Small Business Management and New Venture Creation within business and management courses.

Nathalie Duval-Couetil, Assessing the Impact of Entrepreneurship Education Programs: Challenges and Approaches, 5 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 394 (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): Entrepreneurship education programs are increasingly being established and expanded in an effort to equip students with the knowledge and competency necessary to create economic value and jobs. An underlying assumption of these programs is that they create positive outcomes for students; however, the extent and nature of these outcomes have not been well explored in the literature. The purpose of this paper is to provide an overview of contemporary trends in educational evaluation and the challenges specifically associated with the assessment of entrepreneurship education programs. It proposes practical considerations for faculty and administrators involved in developing assessment initiatives for entrepreneurship education programs, including, the importance of reaching consensus on learning outcomes, the use of a stakeholderdriven approach for setting assessment priorities, and the need to allocate resources to assessment initiatives so they can be sustained long term. It also highlights the value of involving faculty in the program evaluation process and the need to create incentives and opportunities for more assessmentrelated research and scholarship within the field. 

Patricia P. Greene & Mark P. Rice, eds, ENTREPRENEURSHIP EDUCATION (2006).

Abstract: Entrepreneurship education is expanding rapidly around the world with growth evident in terms of the number of courses, endowed chairs, and programs. Business schools have approached their participation in entrepreneurship education with a variety of pace, practice and policy.

Luz E. Herrera, Training Lawyer-Entrepreneurs, 89 Denv. U. L. Rev. 887 (2012).

Abstract (adapted from author): The Great Recession has caused many new attorneys to question their decisions to go to law school. The highly publicized decline in employment opportunities for lawyers has called into question the value of obtaining a law degree. The tightening of the economy has diminished the availability of entry-level jobs for law graduates across employment sectors. Historically, most attorneys in the United States have created their own jobs by establishing solo and small law firms. The latest ABA market research indicates that about three-fourths of all attorneys work in private practice. Of those attorneys, almost half identify as solo practitioners and approximately 14% work in small law offices with five or less lawyers. In fact, the number of lawyers in private practice working in law firms of more than 50 attorneys has never accounted for even one-fifth of the private bar. Attorney demographics confirm that the majority of lawyers in private practice are self-employed. Regardless of the large number of lawyers in solo practice, few law graduates enter the profession understanding the opportunities and challenges of starting their own law firms. The reality of self-employment has not been well-received by many new graduates. Fewer opportunities in the job market have spawned blogs, editorials, articles and letters from and about angry and greatly disappointed new lawyers who viewed law school as their ticket to a six-figure salary upon graduation, but instead found poor job prospects and student debt equivalent to a home mortgage …The future of the legal profession is uncertain. The most consistent and largest employment sector for lawyers will continue to be solo practice. If the largest segment of our law students will eventually work for themselves, then law schools should provide direction about what it means to be a self-employed lawyer. Like their predecessors, the self-employed lawyer of the twenty-first century must learn how to think like a lawyer and find a niche within the business of law. However, to make a living in an increasingly complex and competitive legal market, self-employed lawyers must also become lawyer-entrepreneurs. This Article does not offer a comprehensive understanding of the study of entrepreneurship. Nor does it engage the discussion of the tension between professionalism standards and personal gain. Instead, this piece focuses on what law schools can do to help the thousands of self-employed lawyers who must embrace entrepreneurial models to survive in a competitive market.

Robert D. Hisrich et al., Entrepreneurship (8th ed. 2010).

Abstract:  This textbook has been designed to clearly instruct students on the process of formulating, planning, and implementing a new venture. Students are exposed to detailed descriptions of 'how to' embark on a new venture in a logical manner. The text uses comprehensive cases at the end of the text to complement chapter concepts.

Colin Jones, Teaching Entrepreneurship to Undergraduates (2011).

Abstract: This book is aimed at educators. It explains not just which facets of entrepreneurship to cover in a class, but also how students learn in the classroom environment.


Abstract: Addresses microenterprise and seeks to offer guidance to lawyers who volunteer to represent microentrepreneurs and microenterprise development organizations that facilitate the development of these small businesses. The aspects covered in this manual include: how lawyers can get involved in microenterprise; guidelines on legal formation issues and business issues for microbusinesses; setting up microenterprise programs; information on organizations that support microenterprise and assistance provided by federal agencies

Donald F. Kuratko, Entrepreneurship: Theory, Process, Practice (8th ed. 2008).

Abstract: This market leader was the first of its kind to cover entrepreneurship in one entire text. Its practical step-by-step approach helps develop entrepreneurial skills.

Donald F. Kuratko & Jeffrey S. Hornsby, New Venture Management: The Entrepreneur's Roadmap (2009).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This book is about effectiveness; and what a new manager needs to know to run a new venture successfully.

Law and Entrepreneurship (Robert E. Litan & Anthony J. Luppino eds., 2013).

Abstract (from publisher):  The symbiosis that exists between entrepreneurship and law is of paramount importance in accommodating and advancing the freedom to innovate, as well as the need to prevent unfair and abusive activities. Seminal articles and essays reprinted in this collection examine several major subject areas of law associated with entrepreneurship, including intellectual property, restrictive covenants designed to protect proprietary information, business organizations, taxation, securities regulation and tort law. This collection presents issues implicated in both for-profit growth ventures and creative social enterprises. It also explores the roles of lawyers and trends in the education of law students to become professionals in fields ranging from valuable counselors to entrepreneurs. Along with a new and original introduction by leading scholars, this essential single volume is an invaluable tool to researchers, academics and entrepreneurs.

Jay Mitra, Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon): Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development is unique in that it addresses the central factors in economic development – entrepreneurship, innovation and organizational learning – as regional phenomena.

This definitive text focuses on different types of organizations to illustrate the value of entrepreneurship and innovation both for businesses and for regional development. Establishing a firm link between entrepreneurship, innovation and economic regeneration, the book also examines the factors contributing to their success.

Replete with international case studies, empirical evidence of concepts and practical examples, this is an ideal text to support postgraduate teaching and research related to entrepreneurship, innovation management and regional economic development.

Bill Murphy, The Intelligent Entrepreneur: How Three Harvard Business School Graduates Learned the 10 Rules of Successful Entrepreneurship (2010).

Abstract (from the book jacket): In 1998, three Harvard Business School graduates---two men and one woman---turned down six-figure salaries at big corporations, bet on themselves, and launched their own new companies. By the time they returned to Harvard ten years later, their audacity had paid huge dividends. They'd made many millions of dollars, created hundreds of jobs---and left their mark on the world. Based on dozens of interviews with highly successful entrepreneurs, Harvard Business School professors, and HBS alumni, The Intelligent Entrepreneur tells the compelling and instructive story of how these three young founders developed ideas, assembled teams, built ventures, and achieved their dreams. Over the course of a decade, they learned that starting great companies requires much more than a brilliant idea, good timing, and a ferocious work ethic. Their hard-won insights---distilled into ten key rules---will help anyone become a successful entrepreneur.

H. Holden Thorp & Buck Goldstein, The Entrepreneurial University in the Twenty-First Century (2010).

Abstract:  Topics discussed: (a) the entrepreneurial opportunity; (b) entrepreneurial science; (c) enterprise creation; (d) social entrepreneurship; (e)  multidisciplinary centers; (f) leadership; (g) academic roles; (h) culture and structure; (i) teaching entrepreneurship; (j) accountability, and (k) the new donors and university development.


Jeffrey W. Alstete, Strategy Choices of Potential Entrepreneurs, 89 J. of Educ. for Bus. 77 (2014).

Abstract (from publisher): The author examined the written business plans of 380 students who completed courses in entrepreneurship and small business management over an 11-year period. An analysis categorized the plans into five generic competitive strategy types, and the results found that 58% chose a traditional, focused differentiation approach. A large portion (28%) used broad differentiation and a small number chose other generic strategies. When considering related literature on high failure rates of small businesses, the findings of this study suggest that potential entrepreneurs should be more informed about alternatives and consider combination strategies or flexible innovative approaches in new business endeavors.

Gina J. Colarelli O'Connor, Lois S. Peters, Mark P. Rice & Robert W. Veryzer, Managing Interdisciplinary, Longitudinal Research on Radical Innovation: Methods for Study of Complex Phenomena, Org. Sci.(2003).

Abstract from author:  The purpose of this study is to extend the literature on grounded theory development to incorporate considerations for team-based, interdisciplinary longitudinal research projects in the domain of organizational studies. Every element of the research process is affected if the research questions call for team-based data collection and interpretation over a lengthy period of time. It is unusual for a team of scholars from different disciplines to work together, not because the need doesn't exist, but because the mechanisms for doing so are not well established. We draw from the writings of scholars in the fields of research methodology, team and work-group design, and project management to inform our thinking on the subject. The work presented here is based on the authors' experiences during 1995-1999 as members of the Radical Innovation Research Program (RIRP). The RIRP is an ongoing multidisciplinary study of the development and management of radical innovations in established firms. Here, we do not describe the findings or insights associated with the content of the study, radical innovation, which is surely a complex managerial phenomenon. Rather, we focus on the processes used to conduct the research that were affected by the need for a multidisciplinary research team. A framework is presented for thinking about managing such a project. Challenges that we encountered within this framework are identified. Mechanisms we used (or, in some cases, wish we had used in retrospect) for confronting those challenges are also described. Throughout, we compare our study objectives and resultant methodological design choices with those of other multidisciplinary research teams that are by now well known in the organizational management literature.

Anabela Dinis et al., Psychological Characteristics and Entrepreneurial Intentions among Secondary Students, 55 Educ. + Training 763 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): The purpose of this paper is to test a model of entrepreneurial intentions among secondary students based on their psychological characteristics. Furthermore, this seeks to determine whether teenage students (14-15 years old) possess entrepreneurial characteristics and whether these characteristics correspond to entrepreneurial intentions. A sample of secondary students was chosen ranging from 14 to 15 years old. Data were collected through a questionnaire and analyzed by univarite statistics and structural equations modeling (PLS) to measure the relationship between the psychological characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions.

The results demonstrate there is a relationship between (some) psychological characteristics and entrepreneurial intentions. The propensity to risk negatively influences entrepreneurial intentions, meanwhile self-confidence and the need for achievement positively influence the construct. The relationship between tolerance and ambiguity, locus of control and innovativeness with entrepreneurial intentions reported no statistical significance. The results reinforce the idea that psychological characteristics (trait approach) influence entrepreneurial intentions. However, the model needs further development through the incorporation of behavioral characteristics. This would allow for the understanding of whether behavior and trait theories oppose or complement each other.

The paper provides important evidence for improving entrepreneurship education for young students. First, it is important to incite and develop some psychological characteristics in order to promote entrepreneurial intentions. Second, entrepreneurship curricula should jointly develop both entrepreneurial characteristics and the awareness among students about the viability of an entrepreneurial career. This may be achieved not only by presenting entrepreneurs as role models, promoting an entrepreneurial culture but also by developing entrepreneurial skills that improve self-confidence.

Michelle Barrett Ferrier, Media Entrepreneurship: Curriculum Development and Faculty Perceptions of What Students Should Know, 68 Journalism & Mass Comm. Educator 222 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): To prepare students for the changing media industry, educators must determine whether part of their mission is to prepare students to think and act entrepreneurially. This international study queries faculty who are developing media entrepreneurship courses. The study finds that while the courses take varied forms, the main objectives of the courses are to introduce students to the business side of media startups and to teach students to identify opportunities for innovation—whether inside legacy media organizations or as part of a media startup. The study offers some cautions and challenges for institutions seeking to embark on similar curriculum changes.

Luis Armando Garcia, Teaching Private Equity Investment in Higher Education: An Entrepreneurship Approach (2011), available at

Abstract (from author): A determining factor in entrepreneurship is the level of education of the entrepreneur. Universities and institutions of higher learning are called to design courses and support to potential entrepreneurs. European universities taking part in the European Higher ducation Area (EHEA) should exploit the potential business network that students have at their reach inside the EU area. Entrepreneurship education warrants an improvement of financial literacy, for studies have shown that in many developed nations consumers are poorly informed about financial products and practices. Venture Capitalists consider universities as sources of truly exceptional innovations and inventions, which can develop into successful companies within a short period of time. The Private Equity Investment industry has acquired enormous popularity as an alternative investment asset class over the past two decades. Its backers claim that its extensive economic benefits come from a model that aligns the interest of both owners and management. Perhaps it has never been easier than right now for companies and start-ups to locate, contact and engage potential sources of Private Equity Investment and/or Venture Capital Funds. Entrepreneurship and financial Literacy should be taught openly in Business Schools around the world. The entrepreneurship industry is ready to join forces with academics and students in order to confront the unharmonious aspects of the current curriculum of entrepreneurship education.

Steven A. Gedeon, Application of Best Practices in University Entrepreneurship Education: Designing a New MBA Program, 38 Eur. J. Training & Dev. 231 (2014).

Abstract (by author): The purpose of this paper is to identify and apply best practices in university entrepreneurship education to the creation of a new MBA in entrepreneurship and innovation management. It is a direct response to calls for a total re-envisioning of entrepreneurship education and criticism that existing programs lack rigor, content, pedagogy, measurement and an established definition.

This article uses reviews of the literature to identify normative best practices and how to apply them to the new program. An entrepreneurship program design framework (EPDF) was created and applied to a new MBA program being developed in central Germany.

Most studies describe aspects of current programs (e.g. lists of courses) but almost none say what should be in a program. Others provide abstract guidance (e.g. programs should define entrepreneurship) but do not give specific recommendations (e.g. what the definition should be). The proposed EPDF provided a rigorous structure for reviewing the literature, designing the new program and establishing specific best practice recommendations for defining program goals, content, pedagogy and measurement of student transformation. The entrepreneurship literature is largely silent on normative best practice guidance, so the proposed application of best practices should be evaluated in that context. Previous articles present relatively abstract frameworks and concepts, whereas this article is a direct application of the practical implications of these concepts. The proposed normative best practice guidelines may be somewhat controversial, but should stimulate useful discussion.

David Gilbert, Integrating Theory and Practice for Student Entrepreneurs: An Applied Learning Model, 18(1) J. Enterprising Culture 83 (2010).

Abstract (from author): This paper reports on an innovative pilot project embedded in a capstone unit of Australia's leading undergraduate degree program in Entrepreneurship. The project was developed as part of an industry linkage pilot agreement between the Entrepreneurship program and one of the 'Big Four' consultancy companies, Deloitte Touche Tohmatsu. A pedagogically innovative model of applied learning is proposed that enabled Higher Education students enrolled in a Bachelor of Business (Entrepreneurship) degree to apply in a dynamic (and sometimes chaotic) environment skill and capabilities they already possessed (as opposed to work-based learning about a particular job). Results presented in this paper indicate that educating young entrepreneurs in a Higher Educational setting needs to be like the practice itself; creative, risky, exciting and above all highly satisfying.

Jun Huang, Knowledge is Prudence: How Entrepreneurs Benefit from Business Training in a Field Experiment (Columbia Business School, Research Paper No. 13-75, 2014), available at

Abstract (by authors): Can entrepreneurship be learned, and if so, what can entrepreneurs learn to improve their businesses? Using data from a field experiment where free entrepreneurship training was randomly distributed, the author shows that entrepreneurs improve their financial performance by taking training, and the effect is driven by loss prevention —training lowers the likelihood of operating loss but has little impact on the right tail of the profit distribution. Interestingly, the average entrepreneur invests less in production as a result of receiving training, as evidenced by more moderate financing, production scale and business growth. Meanwhile, the entrepreneurs learned to develop business plans, but showed little improvement in financial literacy or production efficiency. In addition, individuals that received training were more likely to report that training was helpful in "refining business idea" than in teaching the specific skills for business operation. And qualitative evidence from interviewing a business counselor indicates that unrealistic expectation and lack of focus are the common issues that the counseling sessions address. Overall, the results suggest that the entrepreneurs learned to refine their ideas, which reduces value-destroying investment. This paper underscores entrepreneurs' prudence as a determinant of their performance, and also has implications for addressing their resource constraint.

Afreen Huq & David H. Gilbert, Enhancing Graduate Employability Through Work-based Learning in Social Entrepreneurship: A Case Study, 55 Educ. + Training 550 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): The purpose of this paper is to investigate the possible benefits of a work-based learning (WBL) model in “social entrepreneurship” for enhancing graduate employability and an appreciation for “responsible” entrepreneurship.  Pre- and post-course experience surveys were conducted with the yearly cohorts, followed by focus group discussions with students in each semester between 2008 and 2011. In addition, ten not-for-profit (NFP) industry partners were interviewed for their feedback on the enhanced curriculum. Findings – The findings strongly validate the adoption of WBL curriculum for social entrepreneurship in enhancing graduate employability and opportunities for responsible entrepreneurship education. The case study also provides insights into how to overcome the key challenges relating to designing and implementing WBL models through a curriculum innovation in social entrepreneurship.

Further research with longitudinal data is needed to validate the link between students undertaking work-based learning and enhanced graduate employability. Future research should also investigate whether there is a major difference in the associated benefits and challenges of WBL initiatives between “social” and “for-profit” enterprises. Higher education providers could consider incorporating WBL as part of their response to the employability agenda, in a climate where employers are increasingly seeking graduates who possess entrepreneurial skills and an awareness of ethical and environmental concerns emerging from the new post-global recession economic era. 

Social entrepreneurship has received scant attention within the field of WBL. This case study demonstrates how this field can inform the WBL model to enhance graduate employability. It also provides a case for how WBL within the NFP sector can produce more socially responsible graduates who are capable of adding value to the CSR initiatives of organizations across sectors.

Ana Jakopec, Irena Miljkovic Krečar & Zoran Sušanj, Predictors of Entrepreneurial Intentions of Students of Economics, 55 Studia Psychologica 289 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The aim of this empirical research is to verify the contribution of entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities, perceived entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship to the entrepreneurial intentions. The results show that the self-assessment of entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities is positively associated with the perceptions of entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship, which also contributes positively to explanation of entrepreneurial intentions. In addition, it was found that entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities influence entrepreneurial intentions only indirectly, through entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship. Finally, entrepreneurial tendencies and abilities, entrepreneurial self-efficacy and desirability of entrepreneurship together, explain most of the variance of the entrepreneurial intentions.

Sanna Joensuu et al., Development of Entrepreneurial Intention in Higher Education and the Effect of Gender – a Latent Growth Curve Analysis, 55 Educ. + Training 781 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The objectives of this study are threefold: first, to analyze the development of intentions of individuals over time; second, to explore potential gender differences in intention development; and third, to analyze the relatedness of the initial level and development of the antecedents of intentions to the initial level and the development of intentions.

Our empirical results are threefold. First, entrepreneurial intentions of higher education seem to decrease during their studies. Second, there is a gender difference in the initial level of entrepreneurial intentions and how intentions develop over time. Third, the initial level of intentions does not affect the future development of intentions. The authors believe that the paper makes an important contribution to the field of entrepreneurial education by concluding that intention development in higher educational context is not a simple matter, but a rather complicated process during which young people can realize their true potential vis-à-vis entrepreneurial opportunities.

By using a longitudinal design, the paper is one of the first to provide empirical evidence about the intention development over time. Ultimately, the paper hopes to have added richness to the ongoing discussion among academics and educators alike regarding the importance of intention development in entrepreneurship education.

John J. Kao & Howard H. Stevenson, Entrepreneurship: What it is and how to Teach it (1985).

Abstract (from WORLDCAT): A Collection of working papers based on a colloquium held at Harvard Business School July 5-8, 1983.

Thomas Lans, Vincent Blok & Renate Wesselink, Learning Apart and Together: Towards an Integrated Competence Framework for Sustainable Entrepreneurship in Higher Education, 62 J. Cleaner Production 37 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): Sustainable entrepreneurs, i.e. those who proactively facilitate latent demands for sustainable development, are now in higher demand than ever before. Higher (business) education can play an important role in laying the foundation for these sustainable entrepreneurs. Traditionally, however, educational scholars focus either on the issue of education for sustainability or on entrepreneurship education. There is little work which explores and/or crosses the boundaries between these two disciplines, let alone work in which an effort is made to integrate these perspectives. In this article, a competence approach was taken as a first step to link the worlds of education for entrepreneurship and for sustainability because the authors postulate that both, apparently different, worlds can reinforce each other. Based on a literature review, focus group discussions with teachers in higher education (n = 8) and a structured questionnaire among students (n = 211), a set of clear, distinct competencies was developed, providing stepping stones for monitoring students’ sustainable entrepreneurship development in school-based environments.

Gary W. Lawson, First Class “Fly On The Wall” View Of Entrepreneurship Extreme Teaching (EET) In Action, 2013 Global Educ. J. 142 (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): This article presents a lesson plan for college education which teaches concepts about entrepreneurship and provides a description of the course “Entrepreneurial Small Business Management” being offered at the California State University in San Bernardino.

Sandra E. Malach & Robert L. Malach, Start Your Own Business Assignment in the Context of Experiential Entrepreneurship Education, 18 J. Higher Educ. Outreach & Engagement 169 (2014).

Abstract (by authors): Experiential education is often used in entrepreneurship courses, as it conveys both substantive, theoretical knowledge and intangible learning experiences best absorbed through active participation. Starting and operating a business is a unique, educational experience allowing students to apply the substantive knowledge gained in entrepreneurship and other business courses to a real business and to experience the intangible, real-world aspects of the entrepreneurial process. For these reasons, many entrepreneurship programs have incorporated a start your own business assignment. This essay explores experiential entrepreneurship education highlighting the Start Your Own Business Assignment in the context of the Principles of Entrepreneurship course offered to over 200 undergraduate students per year at the Haskayne School of Business, University of Calgary, Canada.

Alex Maritz & Chris Brown, Enhancing Entrepreneurial Self-efficacy Through Vocational Entrepreneurship Education Programmes, 65 J. Vocational Educ. & Training 543 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The purpose of this study is to report the results of a longitudinal evaluation of a vocational entrepreneurship education program (EEP) using entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) measures. An empirical, mixed methods longitudinal and effectuation scale was used to measure ESE scores. Results indicate that participation in the program had a positive significant effect on the ESE scores of all participants. In particular, the increase in scores for women, participants aged more than 40, and participants who did not have business-owning relatives was greater. The authors contribute evidence of the value of vocational EEPs and entrepreneurial learning in increasing the ESE of participants, a finding of practical use to vocational entrepreneurship education institutions and programs, economic policy makers and nascent entrepreneurs. The value of this work lies in its responsiveness to calls in the academic literature for longitudinal evaluation measures of entrepreneurial learning and vocational EEPs and demonstrates to funding bodies the value inherent in such education.

Ed Marram et al., Is Entrepreneurship a Teachable Profession? An Examination of the Effects of Entrepreneurship Education and Experience (2014), available at:

Abstract (by authors): The authors examined the conflicting claims of Schumpeter, who stated that entrepreneurship is not a profession, and Drucker, who wrote that entrepreneurship, is a discipline that can be learned (and presumably taught). They studied the effects of an entrepreneur’s education and experience on the startup and subsequent operating performance of a new venture. Taking entrepreneurship courses enhanced the amount of startup capital raised, but real-world experience enhanced it more. However, neither taking entrepreneurship courses nor learning how to write a business plan had any effect on the subsequent operating performance of the business. Previous entrepreneurship experience enhanced the amount of startup capital raised but did not improve the operating performance. In contrast, professional experience in general — rather than entrepreneurship-specific — gained after graduation before starting a business improved operating performance.

Heidi M. Neck & Patricia G. Green, Entrepreneurship Education: Known Worlds and New Frontiers, 49 J. Small Bus.Mgmt. 55 (2010).

Abstract (from the authors): We explore three "worlds" that entrepreneurship educators generally teach in and introduce a new frontier where we discuss teaching entrepreneurship as a method. The method is a way of thinking and acting, built on a set of assumptions using a portfolio of techniques to create. It goes beyond understanding, knowing, and talking and requires using, applying, and acting. At the core of the method is the ability for students to practice entrepreneurship and we introduce a portfolio of practice-based pedagogies. These include starting businesses as coursework, serious games and simulations, design-based thinking, and reflective practice.

Mary O’Neill Berry et al., Entrepreneurial Training for Girls Empowerment in Lesotho: A Process Evaluation of a Model Programme, 43 S. Afr. J. Psychol. 445 (2013).

Abstract (by authors): A Girls Empowerment Programme held in 2010 in Lesotho, sub-Saharan Africa, focused on HIV/AIDS risk reduction and prevention, life skills, and entrepreneurial training (income-generating activities). Entrepreneurial training was a crucial part of equipping the camp attendees with basic skills to help them develop sustainable livelihoods. Such skills and financial independence are essential to enable rural girls to complete their secondary schooling (in a fee-based educational system) and to pursue a career, as well as to further help them be less susceptible to transactional sex and its significant risks. The results of a brief process evaluation with some nested supporting data showed considerable improvement in the girls’ knowledge about income-generating activities. In addition, almost half of the camp attendees participated in further entrepreneurial training and about half of these girls went on to develop small businesses. Replication of this model of camp training is recommended and being explored in other African countries.

Arminda Paco & Maria Joao Palinhas, Teaching Entrepreneurship to Children: A Case Study, 63 J. Vocational Ed. & Training 593 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): Nowadays few young people are prepared to consider setting up and managing their own business as a realistic and attractive career option. It is therefore necessary to expose children to the concept of entrepreneurship from a very early age, which means that the school has a fundamental role to play in this task. This research seeks to understand precisely what characteristics and motivations entrepreneurship teaching programmes attempt to instil in children. In order to obtain the required information, both a qualitative methodology and a quantitative approach were used, resulting in the analysis of one of them: the ‘Young Enterprise’ programme run by Junior Achievement Portugal – which served as case-study and was the source of the data collected from observation and survey. Through empirical research, it was possible to conclude that the level of knowledge acquired by children increased after their educational experience. This study makes it possible to conclude that it is important for children to have contact with entrepreneurship education programmes, since the aim of these is to instil and develop important personal characteristics that will be crucial for those wishing to become entrepreneurs.

M. Pruett, Entrepreneurship Education: Workshops and Entrepreneurial Intentions, 87 J. Ed. Bus. 94 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Using data collected from participants in an entrepreneurship education workshop series, the author examined the series’ impact and tested a model of entrepreneurial intentions incorporating social and psychological factors. He found that entrepreneurial disposition and workshop participation significantly influenced intentions, exposure to role models and the strength of family support did not significantly influence intentions and, in contrast to previous research, there was no significant difference between men and women regarding interest in entrepreneurship. The author also reports on participants’ perceptions of program effectiveness and the status of their ventures.

David Rae & Naomi Ruth Woodier-Harris, How Does Enterprise and Entrepreneurship Education Influence Postgraduate Students’ Career Intentions in the New Era Economy? 55 Educ. + Training 926 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Enterprise and entrepreneurship education (EEE) is seen as a major contributor to economic growth and development in the post-2008 environment known as the “New Era”. The role of EEE in enabling graduates to develop entrepreneurial intentions and career plans is therefore of major importance. The paper explores how EEE can influence postgraduate entrepreneurship and career initiation in the context of the New Era economy at an international level.

The paper explores the learning experiences of a group of 60 postgraduate international students who completed an Entrepreneurship program at the University of Lincoln which included the development of personal learning narratives and career plans. The paper builds on a prior study of international postgraduate students’ orientation to entrepreneurship education in their expectations of the UK higher education, which confirmed that career development is a major motivator for international study in the UK (Rae and Woodier-Harris, 2012).

 The paper has implications for the marketing, design and delivery of EEE at international and HE institutional levels, as well as for the practices of educators in designing, validating and delivering programs for entrepreneurial career development, at national and international levels.

Gianni Romaní et al., Propensity of University Students in the Region of Antofagasta, Chile to Create Enterprise, 88 J. Educ. for Bus. 253 (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): The authors aim to discuss the propensity or intention to create enterprise among university students in the region of Antofagasta, Chile, and to analyze the factors that influence the step from desire to intention. 681 students were surveyed. The data were analyzed by binary logistical regression. The results show that curriculum is among the variables that have a positive influence, while the desire for a high level of income and escaping unemployment has a negative influence on the intention. Also, being a woman has a negative influence on the intention to create enterprise. Some gender differences are discussed in this context.

Saras D. Sarasvathy & Sankaran Venkataraman, Entrepreneurship as Method: Open Questions for an Entrepreneurial Future, 35 Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac.113 (2011).

Abstract (from the authors): In this essay, we outline the provocative argument that in the realm of human affairs there exists an entrepreneurial method- analogous to the scientific method spelled out by Francis Bacon and others with regard to the natural realm. We then suggest a series of open questions that we believe will help future scholars spell out the contents of such a method and ways in which it can be put to work in the design and achievement of socioeconomic ends. At least one normative implication of accepting the argument would be to teach entrepreneurship not only to entrepreneurs but to everyone, as a necessary and useful skill and an important way of reasoning about the world.

Harun Sesen, Personality or Environment? A Comprehensive Study on the Entrepreneurial Intentions of University Students, 55 Educ. + Training 624 (2013).

Abstract (by author): This paper aims to describe and empirically test a comprehensive model on the entrepreneurial intentions of the university students in which some individual and environmental factors were included. Also, the strengths of individual and environmental factors’ influence are compared. A questionnaire survey was completed by a random sample (n=356) of business administration, health sciences and law faculty students across two Turkish universities. Results were based on correlation and regression analysis.

Results indicate that as individual factors locus of control and entrepreneurial self-efficacy (ESE) and as environmental ones social network and access to capital have significant impacts on entrepreneurial intentions of students. However, the results showed that the university environment does not have any significant impact. Self-report bias and cross-sectional data are possible limitations. Longitudinal studies in the future may have different results.

The paper demonstrates that ESE is the most important factor on the entrepreneurial intention and besides social network contributes as the second factor. Also it puts personality as the dominant factor of entrepreneurial intention of students. However, the paper introduces that the university environment does not have any significant impact on the entrepreneurial intentions.

Marina Z. Solesvik et al., Entrepreneurial Assets and Mindsets: Benefit from University Entrepreneurship Education Investment, 55 Educ. + Training 748 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): Universities provide entrepreneurship-specific education (ESE) to equip students with the entrepreneurial alertness and risk-taking assets required to pursue entrepreneurial careers. This paper explores the linkage between ESE investment, alertness, and risk-taking asset accumulation, and the outcome relating to the intention “to become an entrepreneur” (henceforth termed an “entrepreneurial mindset”).

Survey information from 189 students from three universities in the Ukraine was hand collected. ESE students reported higher intensity of entrepreneurial mindset. Further, ESE students who accumulated the connection entrepreneurial alertness asset reported higher intensity of entrepreneurial mindset. ESE students were more oriented to higher entrepreneurial mindset when they had accumulated more connection entrepreneurial alertness asset. ESE students who accumulated the risk-taking propensity asset reported lower intensity of entrepreneurial mindset. ESE students were more oriented to higher entrepreneurial mindset when they perceived less risk.

 This paper makes a novel contribution by considering whether ESE promotes different elements of entrepreneurial alertness and risk-taking assets.

Marie C. Thursby, Anne W. Fuller, Jerry Thursby, An Integrated Approach to Educating Professionals for Careers in Innovation, 8(3) Acad. Mgm’t Learning & Educ. 389 (2009).

Abstract (from authors): There is an increasing realization of the difficulties professionals in innovation-related jobs face in bridging the interface of technology and business. Further, the use of technology for business innovation increasingly involves technologies transferred across businesses or from universities to industry, either through licensing or engagement of entrepreneurial enterprises, requiring coordination of efforts by inventors, business, and legal professionals. Recent studies in technology entrepreneurship recommend integrated approaches to educating students to operate in this space. We discuss the benefits and challenges of integrated approaches to graduate education in technology entrepreneurship in the context of an NSF-sponsored program that teams science and engineering PhD students with law and MBA students. The curriculum focuses on the technical, legal, and business issues involved with moving fundamental research to the marketplace. We draw on program assessment data, which includes pre- and post-surveys and a control group. We find significant and positive effects of the program on student perceptions of the multidisciplinary capabilities needed  to operate in a technological business environment.

Hsin-Hui I. H. Whited, Constructing a Cash Budget and Projecting Financial Statements: An Exercise of Short-Term Financial Planning for Entrepreneurs, 5 Rev. Bus. & Fin.Stud. 99 (2014), available at

Abstract (by author): This case presents a teaching tool that equips students with an essential skill of short-term financial planning for entrepreneurs. Short-term financial planning concentrates on a venture’s cash needs, the lifeblood of an entrepreneurial venture, so these ventures can better survive the early stages of operations. In this case, students are required to build up a cash budget by utilizing payment schedules of sales, inventory purchases and wage-and-commissions. Other tasks demanded by this challenging case include projecting the following: monthly income statements, balance sheets and statements of cash flows over a four-month period. Students who take on this case should possess a solid understanding of the interrelationship among income statements, balance sheets and statements of cash flows. This case is suitable for a graduate-level finance course or an upper-level undergraduate class of entrepreneurship in either finance or accounting departments. Students might be assigned to work individually or in groups on this case. Completion of the case requires 10-15 hours outside of class. Class discussion should be about 2-3 hours.

Dina Williams et al., Evaluating the State of Enterprise Training for Postgraduate Researchers in the UK, 55 Educ. + Training 849 (2013).

Abstract (adapted from authors): The purpose of this paper is to provide insight into the state of enterprise education and skills training at postgraduate level at UK higher education institutions (HEIs). A case-study research strategy was used to address the lack of existing research on enterprise training for postgraduate researchers (PGRs). Five universities were selected according to the nature and structure of their training programs and geographical spread such that one university was included from Wales, Scotland, South of England, Midlands and North of England.

The next stage of the research focused on gaining in-depth understanding of the enterprise training available to PRGs at selected universities through face-to-face semi-structured interviews with key personnel responsible for the design and management of PGR enterprise education programs.

The paper highlights the current best practices in enterprise education for PGRs. It identified key factors contributing to the success of selected programs including the development of objectives, the modes and pedagogy of delivery and the involvement of stakeholders.

Poh Kam Wong, Yuen Ping Ho & Pei Chin Low, Do University Entrepreneurship Programs Influence Students’ Entrepreneurial Behavior? An Empirical Analysis of University Students in Singapore (2014), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper investigates empirically the link between entrepreneurship education programs and students’ entrepreneurial behavior, with a particular focus on the distinction between experiential and classroom-based education. The authors introduce a more refined measure of entrepreneurial engagement that combines entrepreneurship intention and actual steps taken to realize that intention. Using data from a survey of 836 students at the National University of Singapore (NUS), the authors utilize linear regression models to examine not only the direct effect of entrepreneurship education program participation on entrepreneurial engagement, but also its possible interaction effect with several psychological constructs drawn from the Theory of Planned Behavior. The results show that participation in university entrepreneurship programs, especially experiential learning programs, has significant positive influence on students’ entrepreneurial engagement. Moreover, the effect of program participation is significantly moderated by the students’ attitudes and perceptions. The findings have important practical implications for universities in designing entrepreneurship programs on campus. The study supports the call to move towards hands-on experiential programs as a more effective way for educational institutions to influence students' entrepreneurial behavior and encourage venture creation activity on campus. The authors also contribute to the literature by confirming the impact of entrepreneurship education not only on entrepreneurial intentions but also on the concrete steps taken by students towards venture creation.

Christina Wai Mui Yu, Capacity Building to Advance Entrepreneurship Education: Lessons from the Teen Entrepreneurship Competition in Hong Kong, 55 Educ. + Training 705 (2013).

Abstract (by author): The Teen Entrepreneurship Competition (TEC) was an annual inter-school competition that aimed to promote entrepreneurship education (EE) in Hong Kong (HK) secondary schools. This paper aims to: review and evaluate the implementation of the TEC over the years from 2003-2010, and use the TEC as a case to demonstrate how EE can be advanced through capacity building in various ways and levels. There were two key milestone phases for the TEC. This paper will describe and discuss the achievements made in Phase I and the capacity building for advancing the TEC in Phase II in details. Then, a critical analysis of capacity building for advancing TEC in Phase II will be made with a careful consideration of the TEC’s design rationales, the research findings in Phase I and the three inter-related levels of capacity building. Finally, suggestions will be recommended for further strengthening EE in schools.

The sustainability and advancement of the TEC are closely related to: advancing “Character Building” at the individual level, advancing “Partnership Building” at the institutional level, and advancing “Social Responsibility” at the societal level. However, the TEC might still overlook an alignment with the existing curriculum development. A further capacity building of course development and policy making should be sought. This is an illustrative case study for the purpose of sharing useful information and genuine experience with those who are interested in promoting teen EE in schools.

Online Resources

Centre for Entrepreneurial Studies at the Stanford Business School, Resources, Videos

Making It!, Business Resources & Business Links

Momentum, News & Events, Publications

U.S. Department of Commerce, The Innovative and Entrepreneurial University: Higher Education, Innovation & Entrepreneurship in Focus (Oct. 2013),

U.S. Department of Commerce, The Innovative and Entrepreneurial University: Higher Education, Innovation & Entrepreneurship in Focus (Oct. 2013),

Melissa Korn, Starting a Company? Skip Business School --- Programs Like Starter School Offer Courses a la Carte, Giving Students Just Enough Instruction to Get an Idea off the Ground, Wall St. J., Sept. 5, 2013, at B4.

Other Materials

Brian M. Abraham, Entrepreneurial Strategies for Innovation and Growth, Babson Executive Education, Babson College (May 22-24, 2006).

Brian M. Abraham, , Babson Executive Education, Babson College (May 22-24, 2006).

Brian M. Abraham, Innovation, Ohio Business Week Foundation, Youngstown State University (July 2006).

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