Regional Efforts Business Resource Materials

Entrepreneurship Law Editorial Team


Alberta Economic Development Authority, BUILDING ON THE ALBERTA ADVANTAGE: PROCESS REPORT 1999 (1999).

Abstract:  The Alberta Economic Development Authority (AEDA) released Building on the Alberta Advantage – A new economic development strategy for Albertans in January 1997. This 1999 Progress Report highlights actions taken since 1997 and tracks the performance of Alberta’s economy against key targets set in the strategy.

Abeje Berhanu & Ezana Amdework, Peasant Entrepreneurship and Rural Poverty Reduction: The Case of Model Farmers in Bure Woreda, West Gojjam Zone (2012).

Abstract (from authors):  It is now a decade since Ethiopia started implementing a policy of poverty reduction and eradication. The government's poverty reduction and eradication program stresses the strategic importance of agriculture. The sector, however, is in the hands of millions of peasant producers who depend on traditional methods of cultivation of crops with limited use of green revolution technologies, such as chemical fertilizers. The current package-based agricultural extension service, like its predecessors, uses 'model' farmers to disseminate improved technologies. This group of farmers, because of their entrepreneurial qualities, is expected to positively influence other farmers to adopt improved farming technologies. This research focuses on the entrepreneurial experiences of 'model' farmers in the context of the current agricultural extension package program and their contribution to Ethiopia's poverty reduction efforts by taking the Bure Zuria woreda of the Amhara regional state as case study.

David Birch et al., ENTREPRENEURIAL HOT SPOTS (1993).

Abstract:   As recently as 20 years ago the USA began a transition from a declining industrial and manufacturing economy to an emerging entrepreneurial/innovation-driven economy. With this transition, the early-stage equity market has also evolved. As the institutional venture capital industry continues to focus on later stage and larger investments, the private investor market now provides the major source of seed and start-up capital. However, imperfections in the seed and start-up market have led to market inefficiencies for the high-growth firm. Two funding gaps appear to exist in the US equity market, both largely as a result of these market inefficiencies. This paper provides a broad overview of the early-stage equity market for high-growth ventures in the USA. In light of the critical role of business angels in the early-stage market, special attention will be given to this population. Also included is a discussion of angel markets and recent trends in the early-stage equity financing of entrepreneurial ventures.


Abstract (from product description at  This book is both a critique of the new regionalism and a return to the regional question, including all of its concerns with equity and uneven development. It challenges researchers and students to consider the region as a central scale of action in the global economy.  At the core of the book are case studies of two industries that rely on skilled, innovative, and flexible workers - the optics and imaging industry and the film and television industry. Combined with this is a discussion of the regions that constitute their production centers. The authors’ intensive research on photonics and entertainment media firms, both large and small, leads them to question some basic assumptions behind the new regionalism and to develop an alternative framework for understanding regional economic development policy. Finally, there is a re-examination of what the regional question means for the concept of the learning region.


Abstract (from publisher):  One of the goals of regional policies is to foster entrepreneurship and innovation in Canada's smaller and more remote communities.  This book examines the development processes adopted by two rural, single-industry Canadian communities confronting the collapse of their economic bases.  The author argues that a community's effectiveness in influencing economic development depends on the extent to which entrepreneurship is encouraged and shows that, while a number of factors influence enterprise, economic activities that are community-determined and provide varied opportunities to participate in achieving short-term self-sustaining strategic outcomes are particularly important.

Drivers of Innovation, Entrepreneurship and Regional Dynamics (Karima Kourtit et al. eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The need for informed and effective insights into key concepts and models of regional development and growth, from an endogenous growth perspective, has risen over the past decade. These recent advances address in particular local and regional assets and characteristics comprising, inter alia, creativity, knowledge, innovation forces and entrepreneurship. Access to and exploitation of these modern forms of human and social capital are of paramount importance for the dynamic regional economic environment in a city or region. This volume offers an overview and critical treatment of the spatial-economic roots, opportunities and impacts of new growth strategies, mainly from an evidence-based perspective. In the various contributions to this volume, relevant findings and strategic options are interpreted and discussed from both an analytical and a policy perspective to help cultivate creativity, human capital development and innovation as well as entrepreneurial activity, with a view to exploit the drivers of economic development, in order to strengthen the competitive edge of cities and regions.


Abstract: Documents the experience of seven microenterprise programs in delivering credit and training to low-income people.

M.S.S. El-Namaki, Strategy and Entrepreneurship in Arab Countries (2008).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This book provides a concise and in-depth account of contemporary conceptual and operational issues in strategic management and entrepreneurship. Based on empirical analysis in Arab countries, the author addresses venture capital, technology and survival decisions of Arab entrepreneurs.

Entrepreneurship and Global Competitiveness in Regional Economies: Determinants and Policy Implications (Gary D. Libecap & Sherry Hoskinson eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This volume, comprised of authors from the U.S., Canada, Africa, and Europe, centers on the development, transformation, and role of geographic /regional economies-- specifically in the globalized, post-2009 era. The authors address topics that every region must consider in responding to idea age, globally competitive, regionally driven economies. The volume builds on a large body of scholarship specific to regional economic development and geography by providing a much needed post-2009 perspective on regional economic environments and activities. Among the topics addressed are the emergence and boundaries of new economic geographies; the actors, characteristics, and functions of regional innovation systems as well as the opportunities and challenges associated with region-specific cultural and environmental interactions. It also examines the relationship of regional economies to diminishing country based economies and the critical relationship to globalization.

Entrepreneurship, Innovation And Regional Development: An Introduction (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development is unique in that it addresses the central factors in economic development – entrepreneurship, innovation and organizational learning – as regional phenomena. This definitive text focuses on different types of organizations to illustrate the value of entrepreneurship and innovation both for businesses and for regional development. Establishing a firm link between entrepreneurship, innovation and economic regeneration, the book also examines the factors contributing to their success.

Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions (Charlie Karlsson, et al. eds. 2013).

Abstract (from publisher): This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development. The expert contributors to this work highlight the role of governance in regional growth, an area that has so far been relatively under-researched, underpinning their findings with new theoretical and empirical evidence. They conclude that the relationship between entrepreneurship, social capital and governance in factors affecting regional economic development are complex and interdependent, and that to influence these factors and the relationship between them, policymakers must have a long-term perspective and be both patient and persistent in their efforts. This enlightening book will be of great interest to academics, students and researchers across a range of fields including regional science, regional economics, economic geography, regional planning, public policy, entrepreneurship, political science and economic sociology. Policymakers involved in regional policymaking from national down to regional and local levels will also find the book to be an illuminating read.

Mark Fakhri, Community Economic Development in Atlantic Canada: An Evaluation of the Relationship between Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency and its Partnering Agents (2010).

Product Description (from Amazon):  The Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency (ACOA) has created programs with the intention of fostering economic opportunities for the region. There are numerous instances where its programs have not identified the essential needs of a community, thus creating a benign progression towards economic development. Community members must also be actively involved in their economic development through participation in local organizations to ensure community needs are met. The question then arises, are community needs adequately taken into account when ACOA creates its programs? Posing this question led to this specific study which evaluates ACOA’s community economic development programs (CED). One of its programs is to support two types of local agents, Community Business Development Corporations (CBDC) and Regional Economic Development Organizations (REDO). By surveying them we are able to realize how the federal agency interacts with the local agents to identify community priorities and whether financial needs are met. The findings of this survey should raise some awareness among the various participants involved in CED in Atlantic Canada as well as anywhere else.


Abstract (from publisher): Who are the entrepreneurs who have achieved success, wealth, and recognition in their African homelands, and how did they do it? Entrepreneur Dave Fick interviewed several hundred women and men who were willing to assume risks, often spectacular ones, for personal economic gain--but who did it legally, ethically, and who are now giving back to their nations and societies at least as much as they received. They speak openly of their hardships and failures, what they did right and what they did wrong, and their accounts are remarkable. We gain insight into the way business must be done under harsh political and economic circumstances, but we also learn unusual techniques and strategies that others in more favorable milieus can use to accomplish similar feats. With commentaries from notable scholars and other businesspeople and with Fick's own first-hand onsite observations, the book is a self-educating colloquium, a collection of personal meetings, accounts, letters, emails and telephone calls between Fick, his counterparts in Africa, and others around the world. It is also an attempt to encourage a dialogue that will accelerate the exchange and spread of knowledge and ideas, and a way to help the people of Africa build a peaceful and better society for themselves and the world.

 The Future of Entrepreneurship in Latin America (Esteban R. Brenes & Jerry Haar eds., 2012).

Abstract (from publisher): This book examines the outlook for Latin American entrepreneurs in the new global environment. Using case studies from across the region, the book highlights liberalization measures nations are adopting to facilitate small and medium size enterprise (SME) creation and growth, and existing barriers that are threatening SME sector gains.

Anna L. Haines, David W. Marcouiller, N.R. Sumathi & Al Anderson, Regional Economic Impact Assessments: An Annotated Bibliography of Selected Wisconsin Studies (1997).

Abstract (from Center for Community Economic Development website): This report is the product of a Center for Community Economic Development team project entitled "Our Collective Experience in Regional Economic Studies: 25 Years of Experience in Impact Analysis."

Handbook of Research on Entrepreneurship and Regional Development: National and Regional Perspectives (Michael Fritsch ed., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Recent research has found pronounced differences in the level of entrepreneurship and new business formation across various regions and nations. This timely Handbook reveals that the development of new ventures as well as their effects on overall economic growth are strongly shaped by their regional and national environment. The expert group of contributors gives an overview on the current state of the art in this field, and proposes avenues for further investigation. Topics include the regional determinants of new business formation, the effects of start-ups on growth, the role of globalization for regional entrepreneurship, the effect of national and regional framework conditions, as well as the role of universities as incubators of innovative new firms.


Abstract (from product description at  The emphasis of the book is largely on the British experience with contributions from a rich mix of new and established academics and practitioners.  It examines the ways in which community economic development can contribute to local and regional regeneration. It presents an overview of the state of contemporary British practice in this important policy area and provides a series of theoretical, methodological and empirical insights to help understand ways in which communities are facing up to the challenges of devising and bringing about their own revitalization.

Tarun Khanna, Billions of Entrepreneurs: How China and India Are Reshaping Their Futures and Yours (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): China and India are home to one-third of the world's population. And they're undergoing social and economic revolutions that are capturing the best minds--and money--of Western business. In "Billions of Entrepreneurs," Tarun Khanna examines the entrepreneurial forces driving China's and India's trajectories of development. He shows where these trajectories overlap and complement one another--and where they diverge and compete. He also reveals how Western companies can participate in this development. Through intriguing comparisons, the author probes important differences between China and India in areas such as information and transparency, the roles of capital markets and talent, public and private property rights, social constraints on market forces, attitudes toward expatriates abroad and foreigners at home, entrepreneurial and corporate opportunities, and the importance of urban and rural communities. He explains how these differences will influence China's and India's future development, what the two countries can learn from each other, and how they will ultimately reshape business, politics, and society in the world around them. Engaging and incisive, this book is a critical resource for anyone working in China or India or planning to do business in these two countries.

Patrick Kioko, Social Entrepreneurship in Action: Gered Gereedschap Case: Social Entrepreneurship Unlocking the Development Potential of Marginalized Communities: Stichting Gered Gereedschap (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): The study examined Gered Gereedschap (GG) case in view of social entrepreneurship venture. Social entrepreneurship is a field where individuals referred to as social entrepreneurs come up with innovative solutions to society’s most pressing social problems. Such individuals possess certain characteristic such as passion, ambition, persistent, courage, practical, resourceful, innovation and are long-term in their vision. GG is a Dutch non-profit organization which has no political or religious affiliation and works through volunteers to collect, clean and repair second hand tools which are sent to Africa and other developing countries to aid vocational training. GG has been doing this work since its inception in 1982 based on the vision of social value creation of Laura Dols the founder. The study concludes that GG is a social entrepreneurship venture with a social mission of assisting vocational training in Africa who lacks adequate tools to undertake such work. The provision of the used tools is a form of aid that has helped to make individuals in Africa acquire life long career which has facilitated income generation, employment creation, etc.


Product Description (from Amazon):  This book examines entrepreneurship from three interrelated perspectives. Firstly, it links entrepreneurship to innovation and to the generation, transformation and use of knowledge. Secondly, it inserts entrepreneurship in innovation systems of various types- national, sectoral and local. Thirdly, it views entrepreneurship not as a single event but as a process that evolves in time, from the pre-entry experience, to the entrepreneurial act, to the evolution of the entrepreneur and the new company. With chapters from a range of international contributors, the book answers questions such as; what are the main dimensions of knowledge intensive entrepreneurship? What are the factors affecting its emergence, evolution and performance? How important is knowledge intensive entrepreneurship for European growth and competitiveness? Is the situation of Central and Eastern Europe, engaged in a process of major economic and institutional transformation, similar or different from the one of Western Europe?


Abstract (from product description at  Small towns often play critical roles in regional economic systems. When small towns focus on their specific characteristics and take advantage of their opportunities, they can become stable niches within regional, national, and global economies and take on an important role in shaping a sustainable future.  In an era in which the individuality and vitality of small towns are under threat from globalization, and city planning discussions tend to center on topics like metropolitan regions, megaregions, and global cities, the authors of this volume see a need to reflect critically on the potential of small towns. They show how small towns can meet the challenge of a fast-paced, globalized world, and they use case studies to introduce movements, programs, and strategies capable of effectively promoting local cultures, traditions, identities, and sustainability.

Besnik A. Krasniqi, Determinants of Entrpreneurial and Small Business Development in Kosova (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Entrepreneurship and small businesses are the basis for economic development all over the world. They play an important role in employment, income and societal changes, particularly in transition economies. The systemic social and economic changes which underlined the early stage of transition created the conditions for the development of entrepreneurship and small firms. This book employs various strands of theories of entrepreneurship, theories of growth of the firm and the new institutional economics approach in order to develop a more integrated framework for the investigation of the determinants of entrepreneurial activity and small business growth in the transition and post-conflict economy of Kosova.

Besnik A. Krasniqi, Entrepreneurship and Small Business Development in Kosova (2012).

Abstract (from Amazon): Entrepreneurship and small businesses are the basis for economic development all over the world. They play an important role in employment, income and societal changes, particularly in transition economies. The systemic social and economic changes which underlined the early stage of transition created the conditions for the development of entrepreneurship and small firms. This book employs various strands of theories of entrepreneurship, theories of growth of the firm and the new institutional economics approach in order to develop a more integrated framework for the investigation of the determinants of entrepreneurial activity and small business growth in the transition and post-conflict economy of Kosova.

Gregg A. Lichtenstein & Thomas S. Lyons, Investing in Entrepreneurs: A Strategic Approach for Strengthening Your Regional and Community Economy (2010).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Lichtenstein and Lyons use their substantial experiences in working directly with entrepreneurs to re-conceptualize the process of local economic development. Using a case studies approach complemented with their entrepreneurial league system, the authors explain failures and successes of efforts to encourage business growth.

John Loxley, Aboriginal, Northern and Community Economic Development (2010).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): John Loxley has worked in community economic development as a practitioner, advisor, teacher and scholar for over 30 years. The wealth of that experience is reflected in this book, which grapples with the conceptual and political complexities of addressing northern and Aboriginal poverty. Loxley examines a number of possible approaches to economic development, placing each within a broader theoretical and policy perspective, and considering its growth potential and class impact. Accessible and theoretically sophisticated, the book blends international development theory with northern Canadian and Aboriginal realities. It includes an important chapter on traditional Aboriginal values and culture and their relationship to the land.

Sarfraz A. Mian, Science and Technology Based Regional Entrepreneurship: Global Experience in Policy and Program Development (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Providing a global survey of public policies and programs for building national and regional ecosystems of science and technology based entrepreneurial development, this book offers a unique analysis of the advances, over the last several decades and in light of the experiential knowledge gained in various parts of the world, in the understanding of innovation systems in the pursuit of developing these economies. Presenting nineteen case studies of diverse developed and emerging economy nations and their regions, more than thirty expert authors describe an array of policy and program mechanisms that have been implemented over the years. The in-depth analyses of the worldwide efforts featured in this volume provide the reader with several valuable lessons. There are clear indications of a trend toward better cohesion and coordination of national efforts to improve innovation but also a trend toward the broadening of regional agendas to address technology, talent, capital, innovation infrastructure and entrepreneurship culture issues – considered essential for knowledge based entrepreneurial growth. The book also offers a unique treatment of grassroots level programmatic aspects of these efforts, including some novel entrepreneurial mechanisms employed for policy implementation.

Jay Mitra, Entrepreneurship, Innovation and Regional Development: An Introduction (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This book is unique in that it addresses the central factors in economic development – entrepreneurship, innovation and organizational learning – as regional phenomena.

This definitive text focuses on different types of organizations to illustrate the value of entrepreneurship and innovation both for businesses and for regional development. Establishing a firm link between entrepreneurship, innovation and economic regeneration, the book also examines the factors contributing to their success.

Replete with international case studies, empirical evidence of concepts and practical examples, this is an ideal text to support postgraduate teaching and research related to entrepreneurship, innovation management and regional economic development.

Paul D. Reynolds & Sammis B. White, Wisconsin’s Entrepreneurial Climate Study (1993).

Abstract: According to this report, about the same number of new Wisconsin firms are conceived as the number of new Wisconsin citizens, 150,000. This report confirmed several patterns of entrepreneurship. Among these patterns are entrepreneurship is a major source of new jobs, new sales, and new out-of-state exports, and one in three new firms are high growth. Over 1,200 individuals were interviewed for this project to explore perceptions about the entrepreneurial climate. These individuals in turn identified nascent and discouraged entrepreneurs who were interviewed about their experience in trying to start a new firm. Although a major focus of this report was to look at gender and minority issues related to entrepreneurship, the report estimated the direct impact of new firms on jobs and sales which totaled 40,000 and $3 billion, respectively.


Abstract (from product description at  In a previous book, former Albuquerque mayor David Rusk examined why regions with wealthy suburbs surrounding a poor central city face continuing economic hardship. Now, in this current book, Baltimore Unbound, he applies his ideas in a study of Baltimore's continuing economic stagnation, offering a frank assessment of its causes and possible solutions.  Placing the study in the context of national urban issues, the author reviews similar problems and remedial efforts in other cities.

Mehnaz Safavian & Aban Haq, Are Pakistan's Women Entrepreneurs Being Served by the Microfinance Sector? (2013).

Abstract (from authors): Financial services are important for women who are starting and growing a business, but in Pakistan microfinance providers (MFPs) are not reaching Pakistan’s businesswomen. Only 59 percent of microfinance clients are women, yet the majority of these loans are passed on the male members of the household – husbands, fathers, and sons. The practice of passing on loans to male household members is quite widespread; women may be bearing all the transaction costs and risks of accessing loans, but are not the final beneficiaries. Second, a very low proportion of female microfinance clients are entrepreneurs. The report explores why businesswomen in Pakistan may not be using microfinance products to meet their start-up and working capital requirements, in spite of identifying access to finance as a key constraint to their business operations. Against this backdrop, access to finance remains the biggest challenge for a woman who wants to start or grow a business. Yet less than a quarter of the entrepreneurs identified through business development service providers were currently borrowing from microfinance lenders. Even among those entrepreneurs that borrow, dissatisfaction is high. Why? Women borrower-entrepreneurs are not able to access individual loan products, but instead are consistently relegated to group lending. But group loans are very costly for a woman who is running a business, and the loans are too small to fulfill working capital needs. Businesswomen are rarely given the opportunity to access individual loan products, which are usually offered exclusively to male borrowers, and women are not given opportunities to graduate from group loans to individual loans over time. Lending practices often are discriminatory, requiring husbands’ permission, male guarantors, and unmarried women are rarely considered as potential clients. Although MFIs understand that women’s inclusion is integral to the objectives of microfinance, the practice of passing on loans raises serious issues about consumer protection for women clients, and the best and most effective solutions to these challenges could and should come from the sector itself. Designing better products that reach the needs of emerging women entrepreneurs could prove to be good business, achieving double bottom-line objectives. Investing in financial literacy and education of both men and women borrowers can help curb the demand for pass-through loans and help lower risks associated with deceptive practices.


Abstract:  Much of the research on transformation/transition in Central and Eastern European Countries (CEECs) focuses on macroeconomic issues (such as inflation, economic growth, and employment). Little research has been devoted so far to microeconomic analysis. Recently the issue of new enterprises and firm founders has moved to the centre of economic and policy considerations. Readers of this book will learn about the role played by these firms in the transformation of central and eastern European countries. The book also includes contributions from Central and Eastern Europe on which little or no investigation has been performed until now (Yugoslavia, Romania, Slovakia).


Abstract: This local economic development guide offers assessment and advice for small town leaders on issues such as strategic planning, fostering enterprises, industrial recruitment, tourism, growth management, and forging partnerships.


Abstract (from product description at The authors of this comprehensive book provide a detailed rationale and original theory for the study of leadership and institutional factors, including entrepreneurship, in the growth and development of cities and regions. They demonstrate why leadership, institutions and entrepreneurship can - and indeed do - play a crucial enhancing role as key elements in the process of regional endogenous growth.  The so-called `new growth theory' emphasizes endogenous processes. While some of the literature refers to leadership and institutional factors, there has been little analysis of the explicit roles these factors play in the growth and development of cities and regions. This book remedies that gap, beginning with a brief overview of the evolution of the `new growth theory' in regional economic development, in which the emphasis is on endogenous factors. The book then discusses leadership and institutional factors in that context, creating a new path for understanding regional economic development processes. Multiple case studies from different parts of the world illustrate the theoretical concepts.


Abstract (from publisher): The option for consumers to make payments for services and products via mobile telephones has created a dynamic new industry. "High-Tech Entrepreneurship in Asia" illustrates how small, entrepreneurial firms in Asia have devised and produced innovations crucial for this industry's development. Marina Zhang and Mark Dodgson explore the evolution of the mobile payment industry which has emerged in recent years through the convergence of services provided by financial and mobile telecommunications companies. They consider how leading Asian economies are increasingly becoming the source of important technological innovations. Detailed case studies are used to reveal the technological, social, political, national and cultural factors that encourage and constrain entrepreneurship in Asia, paying particular attention to China and Korea, the industry vanguards. The role played by entrepreneurial start-ups in bridging the gap between banking, credit card and mobile telecommunications sectors is also explored. This highly original work will strongly appeal to students, researchers, policymakers and managers interested in international entrepreneurship, innovation, industrial and technological development and Asian business.


Zoltan J. Acs, László Szerb & Scott Jackson, Entrepreneurship in Africa Through the Eyes of Gedi (July 4, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): Since the 1990s, several new indices like the Index of Economic Freedom, Doing Business, Global Competitiveness Index, have been created to achieving real progress in modernizing the business climates of developed and developing countries alike. These indicators however are focused largely on ameliorating burdens for current business, addressing issues with property rights, processes, etc. While necessary conditions, in the public effort to improve the economic incentives and create employment, they remain insufficient to foster the economic font of development: entrepreneurship. It has to be clear that entrepreneurship, and entrepreneurship policy is not merely about small business, or even at times about business at all, but about creating environments where people are able to perceive entrepreneurial opportunities, opportunities to improve their lives and be empowered by the environment to act upon their visions. While much has been written about the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and increasingly about the Global Entrepreneurship Development Index (GEDI), this paper represents the first attempt to examine private enterprise development in Africa.

Jose Gabriel Aguilar et al., Entrepreneurship Under Severe Adverse Conditions: The Northwest Mexican Case, 2 Rev. Bus. & Fin. Case Studies 89 (2011), also available at

Abstract (from author): The authors analyzed the performance of marginalized subsistence microenterprises, through dichotomous logistic regressions by maximum likelihood. They tested 52,224 hypotheses, trying to find behavior patterns on microenterprises. The results show that performance is the result of a combination of factors related to the owners and the decisions made by them on their entrepreneurial environment, if measured as an approximation of the success/failure ratio. It is possible to know many of these variables before the business starts. In addition, some variables did not show the expected relation; this suggests that these projects deserve a different treatment than the formal micro and small enterprise. These factors may well influence the design of microenterprises’ assistance programs, micro loans and the establishment of commercial areas that allow an "enhanced" micro entrepreneur profile.

Fernando G. Alberti et al., The Entrepreneurial Growth of Firms Located in Clusters: A Cross-Case Study, 54 Int’l J. Tech. Mgmt. 53 (2011).

Abstract (from author): The notion of regional clusters of firms has been the subject of research for over a century. Recent research has increasingly reported evidence of cluster firms' growth, contrasting with the general assumption that being embedded in a cluster restrains the possibility for firm growth in terms of attitude, opportunities and resources. However, despite the recent research interest on those firms that have experienced growth, detaching from the cluster cliche of being small, local and homogeneous, little is known on the antecedents of such growth. In this paper, we use the lenses of firm-level entrepreneurship as a framework for analyzing, comparing and generalizing the empirical results of four case studies (Alessi, Illycaffe, Luxottica and Geox). We argue that local and non-local resources and competencies, together with firm capabilities of acquisition and recombination, are the main antecedents of the continuous process of opportunity recognition and exploitation, i.e., growth of cluster firms.

José Ernesto Amorós Sr. et al., Entrepreneurial Opportunities in Peripheral vs. Core Regions in Chile (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): Governmental policies tend to support and boost entrepreneurship in peripheral regions in many countries. This research revives the debate about specific regional policies designed to foster local new business creation, and the entrepreneurial framework conditions needed at regional level for emerging regions such as Latin America. The authors applied one of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor’s methodologies, the National Experts Survey, to a sample of 695 key informants in Chile at eight regions of which six are classified as peripheral. Using non-parametric statistics they compare the differences between peripheral and core regions. The main results indicate that peripherally located entrepreneurship experts perceive their regions as in a worse position than centrally located experts in terms of finance access and physical infrastructure. On the other hand, the results indicate that peripheral entrepreneurship experts detect more market dynamism in their regions and surprisingly perceive general policy and government programs as supporting entrepreneurship although the Chilean government had not promoted many regional policies.

José Ernesto Amorós, Cristobal Fernández & Juan Tapia, Quantifying the Relationship between Entrepreneurship and Competitiveness Development Stages in Latin America, 8 Int’l Entrepren. & Mgmt. J. 249 (2012), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): This research aims to quantify the importance of a country’s entrepreneurship level in terms of its competitiveness rates. The authors' hypothesis is that those countries entrepreneurship growth rates increase their competitiveness indicators and that this entrepreneurial improvement could be a key factor in reaching the next stage of development. The authors establish this relationship using a longitudinal database of Latin American countries that participated in the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM) and the Global Competitiveness Reports of the World Economic Forum (WEF) from 2001 to 2006. GEM and WEF construct aggregated indexes using several variables to rate each country’s entrepreneurship activity and competitiveness development. The authors use a discriminant analysis to identify various countries’ competitiveness subgroups and show how each country’s entrepreneurship rates have weight in different stages of competitiveness, placing a special emphasis on Latin America. The results suggest that Latin American countries need to gain entrepreneurial dynamics and economic (and competitiveness) development by transforming their typical self-employment or low value-added new ventures for local markets into strong, innovative networked firms competing globally. Some management and policy implications are also discussed.

David B. Audretsch et al., Local Entrepreneurship in Context, 46 Regional Stud. 379 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): This paper posits that regions provide locational factors which determine the industry structure and with it entrepreneurial opportunities whose exploitation influences regional dynamics. To test this interrelation between regional characteristics and entrepreneurial activities, seventy-four West German regions were classified by their endowments with locational factors. The local employees' group-specific propensity to start a business within the framework of count data models was then analyzed. The empirical results suggest the distinct existence of entrepreneurial regional regimes, where local employees have a high propensity to start a business, and routinized regional regimes, with a lower propensity to generate local entrepreneurial activity.

Meghana Ayyagari, Thorsten Beck & Mohammad Hoseini, Finance and Poverty: Evidence from India (CEPR Discussion Paper No. DP9497, 2013), available at:

Abstract (by authors): Using state-level data from India over the period 1983 to 2005, this paper gauges the effect of financial deepening and outreach on rural poverty. Following the 1991 liberalization episode, the authors find a strong negative relationship between financial deepening, rather than financial breadth, and rural poverty. Instrumental variable regressions suggest that this relationship is robust to omitted variable and endogeneity biases. The authors also find that financial deepening has reduced poverty rates especially among self-employed in the rural areas, while at the same time it supported an inter-state migration trend from rural areas into the tertiary sector in urban areas, consistent with financial deepening being driven by credit to the tertiary sector. This suggests that financial deepening contributed to poverty alleviation in rural areas by fostering entrepreneurship and inducing geographic-sectoral migration.

Ted Baker, Eric Gedajlovic & Michael Lubatkin, A Framework for Comparing Entrepreneurship Processes Across Nations, 36 J. of Int’l Bus. Stud. 492-504 (2005).

Abstract (from Authors): Shane and Venkataraman's Discovery, Evaluation and Exploitation entrepreneurship framework ignores issues central to comparative international entrepreneurship (IE) because of unnecessarily under-socialized assumptions regarding entrepreneurial opportunities and the individuals who discover them. To better promote comparative IE research, we develop a Comparative Discovery, Evaluation and Exploitation framework (CDEE), which takes as a starting point that individuals motivated by diverse goals enact market opportunities in a variety of social settings. Building on this characterization, the paper explores how and why processes of opportunity discovery, evaluation and exploitation vary across and within nations, as well as the implications of these differences.

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Oriana Bandiera et al., Can Basic Entrepreneurship Transform the Economic Lives of the Poor? (IZA Discussion Paper No. 7386, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): The world’s poorest people lack capital and skills and toil for others in occupations that others shun. Using a large-scale and long-term randomized control trial in Bangladesh this paper demonstrates that sizable transfers of assets and skills enable the poorest women to shift out of agricultural labor and into running small businesses. This shift, which persists and strengthens after assistance is withdrawn, leads to a 38% increase in earnings. Inculcating basic entrepreneurship, where severely disadvantaged women take on occupations which were the preserve of non-poor women, is shown to be a powerful means of transforming the economic lives of the poor.

Louis Bassano & James C. McConnon Jr., Strategic Partnerships That Strengthen Extension's Community-Based Entrepreneurship Programs: An Example from Maine, J. Extension (October 2011),

Abstract (from authors): This article explains how Extension can enhance and expand its nationwide community-based entrepreneurship programs by developing strategic partnerships with other organizations to create highly effective educational programs for rural entrepreneurs. The activities and impacts of the Down East Micro-Enterprise Network (DEMN), an alliance of three organizations with economic development missions in Maine, is used to showcase effective strategies that identify, create, and sustain strategic partnerships; build on their strengths; and overcome potential challenges. This Extension project was part of a statewide effort in Maine to build and strengthen networks of business service providers and improve service delivery to Maine's entrepreneurs.

Amitrajeet A. Batabyal & Peter Nijkamp, A Schumpeterian Model of Entrepreneurship, Innovation, and Regional Growth (RIT Econ. Dep’t Working Paper No. 11-05, 2011), available at .

Abstract (from author): The authors provide the first theoretical analysis of a one-sector, discrete-time, Schumpeterian model of growth in a regional economy in which consumers are risk neutral, there is no population growth, monopolistic entrepreneurs produce intermediate goods, and a single consumption good is produced competitively. Our analysis generates several new results. In the deterministic model, R&D in time t surely leads to an innovation in time t 1. In this setting, we show that relative to the balanced growth path (BGP) equilibrium, the social planner always allocates more labor to R&D and hence achieves a larger size of innovation and a higher growth rate. Next, in the stochastic model, R&D in time t probabilistically leads to an innovation in time t 1. In this setting, the authors first define the equilibrium and the steady state BGP allocations. Second, the authors generalize the notion of the steady state and determine the number of unemployed workers. Third, the authors show that our regional economy experiences bursts of unemployment followed by periods of full employment. Finally, the authors show that a decline in the time discount rate increases the average growth rate and the average unemployment.

Amitrajeet A. Batabyal & Hamid Beladi , The Effects of Collateralizable Income and Debt Overhang on Entrepreneurial Investment in an Open Regional Economy, 51 J. Reg. Sci. 768 (2011), also available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The authors use a two ‐period model to analyze the contractual relationship between entrepreneurs and venture capitalists in an open regional economy. First, they describe the first best investment contract, then study the second best investment contract in the presence of private information, and then they examine the impact of an exogenous second period income endowment (collateralizable income) on investment by entrepreneurs. Next, the authors analyze the interaction between entrepreneurs and venture capitalists when the regional government (RG) must pay off a per capita debt (debt overhang) which it finances by taxing successful second period entrepreneurs. The authors show that a rise in the per capita debt has an effect on investment that is analogous to a fall in the second period income endowment. In addition, the overhang of the RG's debt discourages entrepreneurial investment.

Miriam Bird & Karl Wennberg, Regional Influences on the Prevalence of Family Versus Non-Family Start-Ups, J. Bus.Venturing (forthcoming 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): The authors integrate insights from family business and organizational ecology into the entrepreneurship field by constructing a theoretical framework that explains how the regional context impacts family and non-family start-ups in differing ways. Regional count data models based on a rich longitudinal dataset reveal that while economic factors such as population size and growth in regions are primarily associated with the number of non-family start-ups, factors related to regional embeddedness, such as pre-existing small family businesses as well as favorable community attitudes toward small businesses, are more strongly associated with the number of family start-ups. Our research provides support for the notion that ‘the regional context’ is an important yet under-theorized area for research on venture creation and family business.

Hayden R. Brainard, Survey and Study of Technology Development and Transfer Needs in New York, 9 Alb. L.J. Sci. & Tech. 423 (1999).

Abstract: The Science and Technology Law Center Project was under taken to identify ways to facilitate the management, development, and transfer of technology from research sites, companies, universities, and entrepreneurs to the marketplace. Business, industry, and government would like to encourage efficient, fast, and less expensive means of transferring technology. However, due to the inefficiency of development and transfer processes, many technologies remain undeveloped. The initial hypothesis of this study is that business and legal difficulties restrict technology development and transfer, and that changes in business and legal culture, through programs and services, may facilitate the development and transfer of technology.

Jennifer Bruno, Note, Microfinance or Micro-Commercial Banking: The Great Recession's Impact on Women's Access to Microcredit in the United States, 34 Women's Rts. L. Rep. 1 (2012).

Abstract (adapted): Small entrepreneurial businesses have thrived in what some may consider unexpected places. The sight of villagers suffering in a rural Bangladeshi village inspired Professor Muhammad Yunus to see how he could help them achieve a better life. Professor Yunus met with a local stool maker and learned she received very little for her craftwork. She had no money to buy raw materials and could only obtain a loan from a lender who set the price of her stools extremely low as a condition of the loan. Professor Yunus intervened and provided a loan--minus the exploitive terms--which now offered the stool maker a chance to sell her wares and earn a one-dollar and twenty-five cent profit per day along with the possibility of a better life and an escape from poverty. What began with a small loan to a Bangladeshi stool maker has now blossomed into an alternative lending philosophy meant to elevate poor, primarily female, individuals out of poverty and into lives as successful entrepreneurs. Countries and organizations in both the developing and the developed worlds have taken note of microfinance and since have implemented programs based on Professor Yunus's lending philosophy. The U.S., in particular, has encouraged the development of microfinance pro[HD] grams through both the state and federal systems. This Note explores the evolution of the microfinance lending model, its implementation in the U.S. (specifically in New Jersey), and whether microfinance lending can exist as a powerful tool to help women avoid perpetuating the feminization of poverty. This Note covers three main areas that analyze the disproportionate effect of poverty and access to limited credit as applied to women, the development of microfinance internationally, and the implementation of microfinance-inspired programs in the U.S.


Kim Cheng, Patrick Low, Habrizah Hussin & Sik-Liong Ang, Being Entrepreneurial, the Brunei Perspective, Int’l J. Econ. Mgmt. & Soc. Sci. 44 (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): Brunei, a country producing oil and gas for over 80 years, faces the need to boost entrepreneurship to diversify the country’s economy and to increase its non-oil or gas dependent income/revenue. This economic diversification can have important benefits for the country, both economically and socially when the finite fossil fuels run out in the near future. The current generation of young Bruneians will be the future business leaders and decision makers. Accordingly, the quantitative research is interested in investigating the attitudes and opinions of the young Bruneians towards entrepreneurship and the factors influencing the development of entrepreneurial qualities to complement existing or future government initiatives in this area. Therefore, the research study (survey by responding to questionnaire method) is targeted at members of the younger generation (age from 18 to 23 years old) of Brunei from the secondary school students and the university undergraduates. The authors analyzed, interpreted and discussed the findings, and subsequently highlight the key obstacles to entrepreneurial thinking in Brunei. The authors also recommend the ways that the government can espouse and implement to get their people to be more entrepreneurial. This includes to promote an entrepreneurial frame of mind; having an open mind and making people a bit hungry as well as making them think proactively, being more independent or simply toughen them up. This research study demonstrates the importance of individual’s personal attributes, such as psychological and demographic factors, which combine with environmental factors that would encourage and promote entrepreneurship. Agreeably, the individual’s discovery of an opportunity and the successful exploitation of that opportunity are also in the promotion of entrepreneurship in the Brunei context.

Yoonyoung Cho & Maddalena Honorati, Entrepreneurship Programs in Developing Countries: A Meta Regression Analysis (World Bank Policy Research Working Paper, No. 6402, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper provides a synthetic and systematic review on the effectiveness of various entrepreneurship programs in developing countries. It adopts a meta-regression analysis using 37 impact evaluation studies that were in the public domain by March 2012, and draws out several lessons on the design of the programs. The paper observes wide variation in program effectiveness across different interventions depending on outcomes, types of beneficiaries, and country context. Overall, entrepreneurship programs have a positive and large impact for youth and on business knowledge and practice, but no immediate translation into business set-up and expansion or increased income. At a disaggregate level by outcome groups, providing a package of training and financing is more effective for labor activities. In addition, financing support appears more effective for women and business training for existing entrepreneurs than other interventions to improve business performance.

Douglas J. Cumming, Sofia A. Johan & Minjie Zhang, The Economic Impact of Entrepreneurship: Comparing International Datasets (2013), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): Based on a comprehensive sample of all available countries and years, with the World Bank data being the most comprehensive, the authors find entrepreneurship has a significantly positive impact on GDP/capita, exports/GDP, and patents, and a negative impact on unemployment. Inferences from the Compendia data are very consistent. By contrast, inferences from the OECD data are not supportive of any of these propositions. The data highlight the importance of access to finance without downside costs so that entrepreneurs are encouraged to take risk. Further, the data highlight institutional differences in risk attitudes more generally inhibit risk taking and thereby limit the effectiveness of entrepreneurship. As well, the data highlight a central role for careful measurement of entrepreneurial activities, and for inclusion of as many countries and years as possible in order to effectively analyze the impact of entrepreneurship.

Martin Curley et al., From Entrepreneurial Fission to Entrepreneurial Fusion: Achieving Interaction Resonance in a Micro-Innovation Ecology, 25 Ind. & Higher Ed. 9 (2011).

Abstract: This article examines European approaches to fostering entrepreneurship, recommending changes from current policies.

Jaime de Pablo Valencia no et al., The 'Business Schools' Programme, within the Framework of the Territorial Network of Support to the Entrepreneur in Andalusia (Spain). 2 iBusiness 326 (2010).

Abstract (from author): The local government of Andalusia runs several public programs, aimed at encouraging new businessstart-ups, and is responsible for stimulating the local economy. It is known that companies that have followed a business training program and have the support of a specialized technical advisory service with a lower rate of failure. This presentation analyses the programs that make up the map of existing mechanisms. One of these shall be studied in depth: The " Business Schools" program; part of the Territorial Entrepreneur Support Network. " Business Schools" came into being in the early nineties and were designed to set up social economy companies in rural districts and encourage the settlement of people in those areas. The doctrine that indicates the synergies existing between companies that coexist in certain surroundings is extensive. A series of commercial links can be seen to be generated between companies included in this program, harnessing the value, not only of this type of program, but also of the companies themselves. We can therefore conclude that incubation in these centers provides the companies involved with certain common characteristics, which result in collaboration amongst them and a healthy tendency to participate in business cooperation projects.

Asli Demirguc-Kunt et al., Entrepreneurship in Post-Conflict Transition, 19 Econ. Transition 27 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from author): The author examines new self-employment entry and its viability in Bosnia and Herzegovina, using a rich household survey for the years 2001-2004. The paper finds that wealthier households are more likely to engage in viable self-employment and create employment suggesting an important role for financing constraints. Specifically, although having an existing bank relationship is not significantly related to the entry decision, it is positively related to the survival for new entrepreneurs and their employment creation. The paper also find a non-linear relationship between remittances and entry in that individuals not receiving remittances are more likely to enter self-employment; but, if they do receive them, the likelihood of starting a business increases in the fraction of wealth received from domestic remittances. Finally, people working in the informal sector are more likely to become viable entrepreneurs , particularly those provided with loans from micro-credit organizations. These findings support the perception of the informal sector as an incubator for formal self-employment in the early years of transition.

Shervin Espahbod & Jahangir Yadollahi Farsi, Scanning of Entrepreneurial Opportunities in the Agritourism in Villages Located in the Suburbs of the Metropolitan Cities of Iran: An Empirical Review (2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Paying attention to small and medium sized enterprises – given the special characteristics they have and the limitations they face in the vicinities of metropolitan cities – in the rural and particularly the agricultural tourism sectors can provide the basis for the improvement of advantages gained from tourism especially with regards to employment and entrepreneurship and additionally it leads to an optimized management of rural tourism activities. The purpose of this paper is to identify entrepreneurial opportunities that contribute to the development of agricultural tourism. In this research, the authors have implemented the opportunity discovery model proposed by Morrison and then after reviewing all published works in the field of rural and agricultural tourism in the time span between 2005 and 2010, the final evaluation is presented. The sample size of the field research approximately includes over 1580 individuals in the localities and over 12587 villages from all across Iran. This shows that if reinforced by appropriate policies, the agricultural tourism in the suburbs of the metropolitan cities in developing countries can be advantageous for the farmers, governments and tourists. For such a change to take effect, an integration of economic, social, legal and managerial approaches is but necessary. The results from the research give a comprehensive insight into the state of agricultural tourism.

Rangamohan V. Eunni & Candida G. Brush, Determinants of Multinational Transfer Pricing Strategies, 16:32 J.  Global Bus. 39-46 (2006).

Kateřina Felixová, Evaluation of the Absorption Intensity of the Entrepreneurial Support in the Regions Funded Intensely by the Government, E+M Ekonomie a Mgmt., Jan. 2012, at 17.

Abstract (adapted from journal): The paper focuses on the use of financial sources from structural funds of European Union and with the focus on the operation programme of Entrepreneurship and Innovation in the context of the regional development support in the troubled regions. The intensity of the absorption of the entrepreneurial support is analyzed according to the criteria set by the government and according to the troubled areas given by the individual regions of the Czech Republic. Whereas the regions supported by the government are given centrally within the Strategy of the regional development of the Czech Republic. The regional level of the troubled areas is set ad hoc. Thus one of the crucial issues of this paper is to find potential preferences of the local authorities when deciding about the applications for the entrepreneur subsidies, loans and guaranties. The detailed analysis focuses on subsidies as the only non-profit form of the support. Further question is whether the regions with the intense government support get enough subsidies from entrepreneurial bodies in comparison with other (non-troubled) areas in the Czech Republic.

Christian Felzensztein, Eli Gimmon & Claudio Aqueveque, Entrepreneurship at the Periphery: Exploring Framework Conditions in Core and Peripheral Locations, 37 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 815 (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper reports the findings of the first academic study in Latin America, and one of the few in any emerging economy, to explore entrepreneurial perceptions and activity in peripheral geographic locations. A survey of experts included 139 respondents from three peripheral regions and two core regions in Chile. A key finding is that those located at the periphery perceived critical entrepreneurial resources and access to markets less favorably than their counterparts at the core, but surprisingly, they perceived greater business opportunity in their area. A further survey of 2,200 respondents concerning actual entrepreneurial activities among the total adult population revealed no differences between peripheral and core regions. This study revives the debate about specific regional policies for fostering the growth of local business, and the entrepreneurial framework conditions required at the regional level in emerging economies.

Christian Felzensztein & Eli Gimmon, Regional Entrepreneurship: What Can We Learn from the Periphery?, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 362 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Previous research in different countries found peripheral regions are weaker than core regions in terms of indicators related to founding new ventures. The research proposition of this study is whether entrepreneurs located far away from core regions perceive difficulties in founding new ventures. Based on the global entrepreneurship monitor (GEM) methodology regarding entrepreneurial framework conditions, the authors interviewed 32 entrepreneurs located in regions of Southern Chile. The results show peripheral regions deprived in terms of entrepreneurial capabilities. The current policies of national and local governments in Chile tailored for fostering and facilitating entrepreneurial activity do not seem to be in favor of regional entrepreneurship and do not provide enough support to entrepreneurs located in peripheral areas. The objective of this paper is to address a common problem in emerging countries with diverse regions and can be of value to the entrepreneurial, policy and scholarly communities.

Marcos Ferasso et al., Entrepreneurship as Way to Contain the Population Exodus: a Local Development Proposal, 14 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 205 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): The lack of job opportunities in a region will lead to socio-economic imbalance and gender inequality. The problem logic is centered on the growth of employment demand and income in order to avoid population exodus. The general aim of the project is the implementation of a regional capacitation for the qualification of the workforce and encouragement to entrepreneurship. The people who will benefit from the capacitation are those without access to qualification courses as well as those who want to acquire information for the start of their own business. The project was developed based on the Delphi method, which involves observation and administration of questionnaires. The Delphi method was used with the managers of selected organizations in the Region of Sao Miguel do Oeste (Santa Catarina, Brazil) and worked as the basis for the development of the log frame by using the log frame methodology. Qualification and specialization of small and micro companies will enable improvements in the management of businesses and contribute to the reduction of business mortality.

Sandra L. Fielden & Carianne M. Hunt, Online Coaching: An Alternative Source of Social Support for Female Entrepreneurs During Venture Creation, 29 Int'l Small Bus. J. 345 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): This article explores women’s experiences of accessing social support from traditional sources during venture creation and identifies the key aspects of social support desired, required and sought. It explores how an online coaching programme could provide the specific types of social support that would be most effective in assisting female entrepreneurs during venture creation. A study is presented based upon interviews with 30 established and 30 potential female entrepreneurs. The findings suggest that an online relationship with a dedicated coach of the same gender could provide the required support in terms of quantity and quality in respect of all functional aspects of social support.

Tamara Galkina & Soren Kock, The Influence of Entrepreneurial Infrastructure on Entrepreneur Networking: A Comparative Case Study of Russian And Finnish Founding Teams, 13 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 238 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): Entrepreneurial infrastructure strongly affects different outcomes of entrepreneurial behavior, in particular, the establishment of new business relations and their development. This study aims to explore the influence of entrepreneurial infrastructure on the process of establishing new business relations and to compare the networking activities of founding team members from Russia and Finland. Adopting a process based view and following a comparative case study strategy, the authors found that the entrepreneurial infrastructures of the two countries, specifically referring to the stability of the economic climate, availability and access to the services of entrepreneurship supporting organizations, and the overall level of trust, all influence the ratio between formal and informal relations in the entrepreneurial networks of the founding teams studied. The findings suggest several practical implications for entrepreneurs and business managers in both countries.

Gerard George et al., Optimism, Vulnerability, and Entrepreneurial Intent: Occupation Change Intentions in Rural East Africa (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): The authors examine how income seeking attitude, economic and occupational vulnerability jointly influence individual intentions to switch into entrepreneurship under desperate poverty. The authors posit that vulnerability negatively moderates the relationship between optimism and entrepreneurial intention. The authors find support for their predictions in a sample of 673 individuals from two sub-locations in rural Kenya. The study design enables us to compare intention to change occupation into entrepreneurship against changing into other occupations. The authors find that intention to change into entrepreneurship has a distinctly different causal process. The authors discuss implications of their findings entrepreneurship under conditions of desperate poverty and the theory of planned behavior.

Ejaz Ghani, William R. Kerr & Stephen D. O'Connell, What Makes Cities More Competitive? Spatial Determinants of Entrepreneurship in India (World Bank Policy Research, Working Paper No. 6198, 2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Policy makers in both developed and developing countries want to make cities more competitive, attract entrepreneurs, boost economic growth, and promote job creation. The authors examine the spatial location of entrepreneurs in India in manufacturing and services sectors, as well as in the formal and informal sectors, in 630 districts spread across 35 states/union territories. They quantify entrepreneurship as young firms that are less than three years old, and define entry measures through employment in these new establishments. They develop metrics that unite the incumbent industrial structures of districts with the extent to which industries interact through the traditional agglomeration channels. The two most consistent factors that predict overall entrepreneurship for a district are its education and the quality of local physical infrastructure. These patterns are true for manufacturing and services. These relationships are much stronger in India than those found for the United States. The authors also find strong evidence of agglomeration economies in India's manufacturing sector. This influence is through both traditional Marshallian economies like a suitable labor force and proximity to customers and through the Chinitz effect that emphasizes small suppliers. India's footprints in structural transformation, urbanization, and manufacturing sector are still at an early stage. At such an early point and with industrial structures not yet entrenched, local policies and traits can have profound and lasting impacts by shaping where industries plant their roots.

Patrick T. Gibbons & Tony O'Connor, Influences on Strategic Planning Processes among Irish SMEs, 43(2) J.  Small Bus. Mgmt. 170-186 (2005).

Abstract (from Authors): In this study we argue that the approach to strategy formation reflects organizational and individual influences. The study, based on questionnaire responses from 359 firms, examines a number of organizational and individual factors influencing the type of strategy formation process adopted. The constructs of strategic posture, organization structure, management ownership, and Chief Executive Officer (CEO) experience are measured. Three models predicting strategy formation approaches are explored. First, an organizational model emphasizing the impact of strategic posture and organization structure is analyzed. Second, a model is tested dealing with CEO and top management team characteristics reflecting the effects of agency costs and experience base. Finally, an integrative model combining both organizational and individual factors is evaluated. The results highlight the importance of organizational factors and show, for instance, that entrepreneurial firms tend to adopt more formal strategic planning approaches, while conservative firms adopt more incremental approaches. In addition, both management shareholding and CEO experience are negatively related to formal strategic planning activities.

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Gozem Guceri-Ucar, Exploring Business Incubation and Drivers of Software Start-Up Success in Turkey (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): This study is the foundation of a longitudinal analysis of business incubators in Turkey, and their effectiveness in enhancing the success and sustainability of new software ventures. A thorough review of entrepreneurship and business incubation literature was put to use in identifying software start-up success indicators and devising a field study involving 15 start-up companies as well as 5 different business incubators located in Istanbul. The results were combined with literature review findings to derive propositions relating emergent constructs and software start-up success in Turkey. These will be used in formulating our longitudinal study encompassing nearly 20 business incubators, their tenants, and their graduates. Aside from being the first of its kind in Turkey, this study is a significant contribution to literature due to its explicit focus on the tenants rather than the incubators, its large scale encompassing multiple incubators, and its concern with the incubation outcomes having been achieved.

Mridula Gungaphul & Hemant Kassean, An Insight into the Networking Approaches of Women Entrepreneurs in Mauritius (European Business Research Conference Proceedings, 2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Studies on gender and entrepreneurship often attempt to compare personal characteristics, business practices and behavior of male and female entrepreneurs. One key element in entrepreneurship that has started to gain attention is networking. Networking can be of strategic importance to entrepreneurs since starting a business requires resources such as capital, labor and information and advice … Furthermore, networks are related to business performance as the contacts from these networks form the social capital of entrepreneurs. Research in many countries has shown that although women are involved in networking, they nonetheless lack suitable and effective social networks compared to men. Since it is generally accepted that there is a relationship between networks and the survival and success of businesses, especially in small and medium enterprises (SMEs), the main objectives of the present study is to investigate the network composition of female entrepreneurs in Mauritius and also to identify the benefits derived from networking. The study will also identify causes, if any, that hinders the networking practices of women entrepreneurs. Ten women entrepreneurs from diverse sectors formed part of a focus group, the chosen method of data collection for this study. The findings reveal that female entrepreneurs tend to favor family and friends in their contact lists. Their networks comprise more women than men. The reasons and benefits derived from their networks include receiving business support and emotional support. The main hindrance preventing women to network effectively is due to family responsibilities. The findings from this study provides useful insights for support institutions, policy makers and entrepreneurs – especially women entrepreneurs – in identifying ways and means about how to enrich social networks to ensure success and survival of businesses.

Jan Gunnarsson and Torsten Wallin, An Evolutionary Approach to Systems of Innovation, 21 J. Evolutionary Econ. 321 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This article examines how the birth and the development of regional systems of innovation are connected with economic selection and points to implications for regional-level policies. The research questions are explored using an evolutionary model, which emphasizes geographical spaces and production of intermediate goods. In particular, we are concerned with how cooperative behavior of technology producers is affected by the need to protect technological secrecies and of being financially constrained by firms demanding innovative input. Based on the theoretical model, we provide an analysis using computer simulations. The primary findings are, first, that the model generates predictions suited for empirical research as to the way in which economic selection influences cooperative behavior of innovative actors. Second, we demonstrate how a region's entrepreneurial activity and growth can be controlled in a decentralized way by regions.

Gordon Y. Ipson & Maury Forman, The State's Role in Economic Development Education: Some Existing Models, 13(3) Econ. Dev. Rev. 36 (1995).

Abstract (from EBSCO): Describes economic development (ED) training programs developed in Nebraska and Washington State. Increasing importance of ED information, education and training; Need for states to coordinate ED training efforts.

X. N. Iraki & Wangethi Mwangi, Jogoo Kimakia: The Making of a Kenyan Entrepreneur (March 18, 2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): Some people silently pass through this small planet unnoticed. Even the most sensitive radars do not notice their presence. Others, make a bang, and everyone notices them, admires them, envies them or at times hates them. The most noticeable ones are usually leaders, not just in politics but in their chosen area of endeavor. A few are noticed long after they have made their pilgrimage across this lonely planet. Jogoo Kimakia (Dedan Nduati Njoroge) made a mark when alive, and long after his departure. He made his mark in post independent Kenya through entrepreneurship targeting the transport business … Jogoo Kimakia was the trade name for a firm owned by Dedan Nduati Njoroge (1926-2008). The name originated from Kimakia forest where he burned charcoal as a young entrepreneur. His success in burning charcoal earned him the name Jogoo (cockerel) which in local language means a star. In his heyday, he owned 113 buses that plied different routes from Central Kenya to Rift Valley and beyond. Jogoo Kimakia is an example of a family owned business that made a great contribution to the Kenyan economy. This is in line with such businesses elsewhere. In the US for example it has been estimated that family businesses contribute 40-60% of the GDP and create over half of the new jobs (Shanker and Astrachan, 1996).

Saud Ilahi, Women Entrepreneurs in India: Socio Economic Constraints (2012), available at

Abstract (by author): Entrepreneurship is a very important criteria for economic development. The role of women entrepreneurs cannot be ignored in this process. There is a significant contribution of women entrepreneurs in the growth of developed nations. The development of women entrepreneurship is low in India, especially in rural areas. Women entrepreneurs face lots of problems right from the beginning until the enterprise functions. This paper focuses on the status of women entrepreneurs.

Lokesh Jasrai, Rural Entrepreneurship: An Innovative Approach to Rural Mobile Telecom Services Marketing, 10 IUP J. Entrepren. Dev. 6 (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): Mobile telecom service industry in India enjoyed a high growth rate during the last decade but is now struggling to maintain a sustainable growth rate due to deterioration of key operating metrics, leverages, financial metrics, high operating costs, and disparity of teledensity between rural and urban India. The purpose of this study is to provide a conceptual framework of rural entrepreneurship with the aim to enhance adoption and consumption of mobile telecom services in bottom-of-pyramid markets. On the basis of extensive review of literature and three case studies drawn from Asian telecom firms, viz., Village Phone Program – Bangladesh and Smart Communication Inc. Philippines, and Celtel International – Nigeria, various partners such as mobile telecom operators, microfinance agencies, rural entrepreneurs, local community and regulating bodies have been identified as the major stakeholders in the suggested model.

Peter F. Korsching & Timothy O. Borich, Facilitating Cluster Communities: Lessons from the Iowa Experience, 32(4) Cmty. Dev. J. 342 (1997).

Abstract:  Cluster communities organized as voluntary alliances between two or more communities to address common problems, needs and interests are an increasingly popular community development strategy. The Iowa experience with cluster communities suggests that although these organizations have a grass roots origin, some level of institutional support can facilitate their emergence and is important to their continued survival. In addition to providing direct financed subsidies, a number of state and federal policy options are available to assist communities' successful implementation of clustering. These include laws and regulations that permit and promote collaborative ventures and educational programs for community, state and federal decision-makers.

Anil Kumar & Raj Kumar, Problems of Quality Management in Small and Medium Enterprises: A Factor Analytical Study (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper examines the problems of quality management faced by entrepreneurs of Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs) by analyzing a sample of 350 entrepreneurs selected from five states in Northern India. Using factor analytical technique, the various problems relating to quality management are reduced to five factors. These are problem of application of human resource practices, difficulty in adopting acceptable quality standard, work overload, lack of joint planning, and lack of financial resources. Then, one-way and two way Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique is applied to find significant difference in the age and education of the entrepreneurs for various problems that emerged from factor solution. Based on the results of the study the following are suggested: the entrepreneurs should go for regular training programs in the area of quality management in addition to other areas of management. Institutions involved in entrepreneurship development should lay more emphasis on this emerging area. Government should provide long-term financial resources through better banking system at lower rates to facilitate adoption of quality management. There should be constant interaction between the industrial organizations of large, medium and small enterprises. 

Aruna Kumar Panda & Gayatri Manisa Panda, Out of Shell: Charming Avenue or Economic Compulsion? A Strategic Review on Women Entrepreneurship in Orissa, 1 Int’l Res. J. Soc. Sci. & Corp. Excellence 13 (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): The present paper attempts to analyze the concept of women entrepreneurship as an integral part of women empowerment in Orissa since the early Nineties and the changing role of women in the entrepreneurial world from the traditional sectors of handicraft and cottage industries to the hi-tech male dominated non-traditional sectors of engineering, chemical, electronics, energy, etc., during the current era. It carries out an in-depth discussion about the present status-quo of women entrepreneurs in Orissa and categories them into four parts. It observed that for the “upper class” category of women, being into entrepreneurship is a way to utilize their time and money skillfully and productively with a motive to reach the pinnacle of success keeping in toes with their celebrity status for necessary social recognition and psychological satisfaction; whereas, an “upper middle class” just follow these Role Models. The paper observes and identifies them to be the women entrepreneurs in focus rather than the real contributors to the economy and households, the “middle class” and “lower middle class” categories of women entrepreneurs, for whom entrepreneurship is in fact a commitment to provide supplements to their family income. It is not a ‘bed of roses’ for them keeping in view of their dual role at home and office in one hand and the social threats due to gender biasness and financial constraints on the other hand. The paper found them to be the most needful category to support, and discussed at a length about several schemes of the State Government, SIDBI, District Industrial Centers, Voluntary Organizations and NGOs that aims to aware and motivates the grass-root women groups of rural and semi urban segment of the state for self-employment and economic independence. The end findings of this paper accept the reality “women are the home makers and office managers” thereby rejecting the myth “women are the home makers only,” and makes a statement to the masculine of the society to change their protective psychology and repose best confidence measures in the ability of their counterparts who are equally skilled at work and mature in strategic decision making.

Duro Kutlaca, Business and Technology Incubators in Autonomous Province of Vojvodina: From Feasibility Studies to Evaluation of Performance - Case Study of Business Incubator Zrenjanim, 10 Int’l J. Tech. Transfer and Commercialisation 168 (2011).

Abstract (from author): Innovation infrastructure is one of the crucial components of a national system of innovation (NSI), both as driver of business sector restructuring and link between different components of NSI. Creation of innovation infrastructure in Serbia is a painful process due to long period of economic and social struggles, political instability and still not finished transition toward market economy. This paper will explore the role of business and technology incubators in Serbia as infrastructure, which could accelerate transition toward knowledge-based market economy. One case study - process of setting-up a business technology incubator in Zrenjanin, Autonomous Province of Vojvodina, will be presented two-fold: a) firstly, theoretical point of view, will consist of presentation of main findings of feasibility study for creation of Business Incubator Zrenjanin; b) secondly, realization, i.e., practical side of this process, will be presented through the setting-up procedure, selection of first tenant companies and preliminary evaluation of incubator's performance.

Frank Lasch et al., Regional Determinants of ICT New Firm Formation, 40 Small Business Economics 671 (2013), available at

Abstract (adapted from authors): The role of regional determinants in new entrepreneurs’ location decisions is analyzed in the French information and communication technologies (ICT) sector. As the focus is on the emergence of this industry, the dataset includes every new ICT firm in France in the period 1993-2001. The author finds evidence for the positive effect of co-location with incumbent ICT firms and some effect of knowledge spillovers. The effects of agglomeration, entrepreneurial capital and human capital are mixed.

Hyunsuk Lee, Donna J. Kelley & Mark P. Rice, An Agency Theory Perspective on Managing Innovation-Based Corporate Entrepreneurship: Applying Insights from the U.S. to a Korean Multinational Firm, 9(1) J.  Strategic Mgmt. (Korea) 1-19 (2006).

Joao Leitao et al., Globalization, Entrepreneurship and Regional Development,12 Int’l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 129 (2011).

Abstract (from author): Entrepreneurship has been a strategic driver in facilitating the adjustment to technological change and supporting competitiveness in terms of place. Only two decades ago the conventional wisdom predicted that globalization would destroy the region as a meaningful unit of economic analysis. Yet the obsession of policy-makers around the globe to 'create the next Silicon Valley' revealed the increased importance of geographic proximity and regional agglomerations as well as of the role of SMEs and entrepreneurial activity. This article explains the relation between entrepreneurship and space which emerged after the advent of the information and communication technology revolution and the resulting wave of globalization. But the study of strategic management of regions still needs to address a number of methodological issues. Contrasting results and methodological issues affect entrepreneurship research in this field, many questions by economic actors are unanswered and the valorization of results for practice remains complex. The 2008 RENT XXII conference held at the University of Beira Interior in Covilha, Portugal, invited international scholars to discuss on the topic of 'Entrepreneurship as an engine of regional development'. This article opens a special issue based on the best papers presented at the conference, resumes the state of the field and opens directions for future research.

Gregg Lichtenstein & Thomas S. Lyons, Lessons from the Field: Mapping Saskatchewan's Pipeline of Entrepreneurs and Enterprises in Order to Build a Provincial Operating System for Entrepreneurship, 43 Community Dev. J. 113 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): This article describes the initial stages of a long-term change project, to implement a province-wide entrepreneurial development system in Saskatchewan, Canada. The project used a highly participative planning process to engage 300 stakeholders in a new method to meaningfully segment the marketplace of entrepreneurs and enterprises in a community or region. This process, referred to as the Pipeline of Entrepreneurs and Enterprises, guides economic development investments and moves them from a piecemeal approach of addressing entrepreneurial needs to one that is more systemic.

Iva Light & LéoPaul Dana, Boundaries of Social Capital in Entrepreneurship, 37 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 603 (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): This research begins with a theoretical critique of the social capital literature, and then focuses on Old Harbor, Alaska. In this remote outpost, mainly populated by Alutiiq people, all entrepreneurs selfidentified as EuroAmericans or multiethnic, not Alutiiq. Although Alutiiq people have abundant social capital, which they employed for economic purposes, they did not employ their social capital for commercial entrepreneurship. Our findings suggest that social capital promotes entrepreneurship only when supportive cultural capital is in place.

David A. McGranahan, Entrepreneurial Climate in Small Towns, 17(4) Reg’l Sci. Rev. 159-169 (1990).

Abstract:  This paper suggests a model of capital formation that concurrently establishes a mechanism to fund early-stage technology-based firms and meets the economic development needs of rural communities. Investors in a community capital investment fund can gain high rates of return on investment while firms realize all of the benefits associated with the investment, community support, and expanded network. The model includes factors associated with the community environment (community-based factors that impact community members' participation) and external support environment (factors that facilitate the accumulation of investment capital within a community). The result of a community effort can be an environment in which members of the community contribute to an investment fund, cooperate in attracting firms, and provide networking assistance to new business owners. Communities benefit through job creation and economic stability Community members benefit through wealth creation.

Sarfraz Mian et al., Building Knowledge Regions in Developing Nations with Emerging Innovation Infrastructure: Evidence from Mexico and Pakistan, 2 Int’l J. Innovation and Regional Dev. 304 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This paper studies the efforts of building knowledge regions in emerging economy nations with special reference to Mexico and Pakistan. It starts with the introduction of an analytical framework developed for assessing knowledge regions. This is followed by case studies exploring the emerging innovation infrastructure appearing in several metropolitan regions of the two countries (five in Mexico and three in Pakistan) aimed at developing knowledge-based economies. A comparative analysis of the existing structures and policies of each case shows that efforts have been made primarily through university and research centre initiatives, while support programs such as science parks, incubators and other government incentives seem to have only limited effectiveness except when used in regions with a well developed industrial and service base and related entrepreneurial culture. Overall, there are gaps in innovation infrastructure development due to scarce resources, as well as in most cases, absence of entrepreneurial culture, both considered longer term undertakings. While providing insights into the challenges faced by developing nations when building knowledge regions, the paper lays out what can be learned from both countries' experiences and recommends appropriate policy actions.

Kevin Mole et al., Broader or Deeper? Exploring the Most Effective Intervention Profile for Small Business Support, 43 Env’t and Planning 87 (2011).

Abstract: This paper examines the role of England’s Business Link organizations in supporting small business through intervention.

Faraha Nawaz, Problems of Woman Entrepreneurship Development In Bangladesh: A Case Study of RAKUB, 20 Pertanika J. Soc. Sci. & Human. 601 (2012), available at

Abstract (by author): This study is an attempt to analyze the constraints and problems which hinder woman entrepreneurship development in Bangladesh. The study focused on the entrepreneurs who are financed by Rajshahi Krishi Unnayan bank (RAKUB). It is notable that excellent economic and social changes have occurred in the lives of poor women with the credit of RAKUB. However, there are still major problems in the overall development of those female entrepreneurs. The study was based on analyses of both primary and secondary data. It was found that most of these entrepreneurs are illiterate and have no concept of the market. Besides, the study also described major problems like complex and critical problems in taking loans, the lack of knowledge and experience in marketing of products, poor managerial and technical skills, as well as low amounts of capital, huge interest burden, and social and cultural obstacles.

Alain A. Ndedi Yenepad, Linkages between Entrepreneurship and Black Economic Empowerment in the South African Context (2013), available at

Abstract (by author): Entrepreneurship is sometimes seen as a process of few peoples. Although some persons have innate abilities as entrepreneurs, many can also develop this capacity in their life through a learning process. According to Timmons (1999:27), entrepreneurship is a way of thinking and reasoning. At the heart of entrepreneurship are the creation and/or recognition of opportunities. What is the link between entrepreneurship and BEE? What is BEE? The term Black Economic Empowerment (BEE) started slipping into vocabulary of black activists at just about the same time that "black advancement" was the term in vogue in the late 1970s. But it was only in the late 1980s, that it began to be used strongly as a counterpoint to the meaningless "equal opportunity" that had been given prominence by the corporate sector. Since the first democratic elections in South Africa, the term BEE has evolved. The BEE Commission defined BEE as a strategy aimed at substantially increasing black participation at all levels in the economy. BEE is aimed at redressing the imbalances of the past by seeking to substantially and equitably transfer ownership, management and proportionate control of South Africa's financial and economic resources to the majority of its citizens … The present paper explores the entrepreneurship as an alternative way that can be undertaken to alleviate poverty among this group of the population. The question surrounding this paper is what to focus on entrepreneurship as a remedy to improving black's lives and reduces poverty? The history of the Unites States is an example that needs further examination. More than twenty years ago MIT researcher David Birch finds that the new and growing smaller firms created 81.5 percent of the net new jobs in America from 1969 till 1976. During 1993-1996, eight million jobs were created in US, with 77% of these by small enterprises. The conclusion that arises from Birch's findings is that job creation is driven by the birth and growth of companies.  Fighting poverty among black peoples through BEE can be effectively achieved through job creation. Job creation is achieved mostly by small and medium size organizations. Entrepreneurs create small and medium enterprises. Therefore, entrepreneurship as a way of thinking or reasoning help disposed people to change their social life, from poverty to wealth: a direct link between BEE and entrepreneurship. How this can be achieved? How can entrepreneurial mindset be implemented among black population? This paper develops entrepreneurship as an alternative way of implementing BEE in an entrepreneurial context.

M. Otoo et al., Micro-Entrepreneurship in Niger: Factors Affecting the Success of Women Street Food Vendors, 13 J. African Bus.16 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Micro-entrepreneurship in the informal sector plays a vital role in generating employment and income in West Africa. In this article, the authors examine business success factors for micro-entrepreneurs involved in the production and sale of street foods in Niger, drawing on the resource-based view theory. Business success was measured by size of firm and vendor's perception of enterprise growth. Their results indicate that business experience is an important success factor, while the need for cash is a constraint for business success. A rare resource, limited access to financial assets translates into limited opportunities for growth of these informal micro-enterprises into viable businesses.

Patricio I. Ovalle Wood et al., Female Entrepreneurship: Empirical Evidence from Chile (2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): This paper gives an account of the Consultancy in 15 schools of Female Entrepreneurship, conducted for the National Women Service SERNAM, Chile's state agency, as part of Support Social Cohesion EU-Chile, coordinated by the Agency International Cooperation, AGCI, which is an organization of the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Government of Chile, inspired as a cooperation program to promote policies that help overcome social inequality and propitiate towards gender equality as a foundation for the existence of a more equitable, humane and cohesive society. The authors present the results in the south of Chile, specifically in the regions of Araucania, Los Rios, Los Lagos, Aysen and Magallanes and Chilean Antarctica, where it could be verified empirically, attributes such as commitment, strength, identity, courage, attitude and entrepreneurial mind of those southern regions women. 

Bruce D. Phillips & Bruce A. Kirchhoff, Formation, Growth, and Survival: Small Firm Dynamics in the U.S. Economy, 1(1) Small Bus. Econ. 65 (1989).

Abstract:  This 1989 study uses the 1976-1986 USELM data files of the US Small Business Administration, derived from Dun and Bradstreet employer data. This study finds that two out of every five new firms survive for more than six years. Manufacturing displays the highest survival rate (47 percent), and construction the lowest (35 percent). Phillips and Kirchoff find that employers experience a growth spurt in employment during years five through nine of their existence. Growth rates in employment are positively correlated with survival rates. Several caveats about this research are that the data exclude early failures (units that survive for less than two years), and that the commercial nature of the data source reduces its reliability.

Nthati M. Rametse & Hetal Shah, Investigating Social Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries (2012), available at

Abstract (by authors): Social entrepreneurship has drawn interest from global policy makers and social entrepreneurs to target developing countries. Generally, not-for-profit organizations, funded by government and donor grants have played a significant role in poverty alleviation.  The authors argue that, by applying entrepreneurial concepts, organizations can create social value, hence mitigate poverty. This is a theoretical paper that builds upon a multi-dimensional model in analyzing how three social enterprises from India and Kenya create social value to address social problems. The findings suggest that whilst the social mission is central to all these organizations, they also create social value through innovation and pro-activeness. Additionally, the cultural and political environmental contexts hinder their attempt to create social value. Building networks and partnerships to achieve social value creation is vital for these organizations. Policy makers should devise policies that would assist social enterprises to achieve development goals.

Bonnie R. Renfro, Program for the Rural Carolinas, 4(1) Econ. Dev. J. 18 (2005).

Abstract (from EBSCO): Looks into the creation of the Program for the Rural Carolinas to assist economically distressed communities to revitalize their economic situations. Identification of its major goals; Discussion of the guiding principles; Issues the program is trying to address.

Kelly Smith & Martin Beasley, Graduate Entrepreneurs: Intentions, Barriers and Solutions, 53 Education + Training 722 (2011).

Abstract (from author): This paper aims to investigate the factors that influenced seven graduates in the creative and digital industries to start their own businesses in Barnsley, South Yorkshire, UK – an area with lack of employing establishments and locally registered businesses. Design/methodology/approach – Questionnaires and semi-structured interviews identified the constraining and enabling factors graduates may encounter when attempting to start a business, and explored the impact of support provided. Findings – Perceived constraining factors were: lack of general business knowledge, contradictory advisory support from external agencies, lack of sector-specific mentors, lack of finance, and experience of familial entrepreneurship. Perceived enabling factors were: co-mentoring from business partners, course content, financial gain, creativity and innovative ideas, control and risk taking, and the overarching package of support. Linkages between internal and external support could be improved. Research limitations/implications – The study provided insights into constraints and enablers to self-employment for a small cohort of recent graduates looking to start-up in the creative and digital industries. Further studies are required to explore the suggested effect of the "creative identity", and of sector-specific family entrepreneurial background. Practical implications – The support provided by universities can facilitate the transition from early stage ideas to actual graduate business start-up. Issues such as provision of specialist advice and links with external parallel and follow-on support need to be considered. Originality/value – University start-up units provide an important contribution to the development of graduate entrepreneurs and their role in the growth of national and global economy. Suggestions for improvements in performance, such as closer links with external business development agencies and support providers, are discussed.

Malama Solomona & Robert Davis, Exploring Entrepreneurship Policy in a Pacific Context: The Case of Tonga, 16 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 131 (2012).

Abstract (from journal): In 2010, data was collected to explore entrepreneurship in a Pacific context. The preliminary conceptual model is based on the triangulation of findings from the national expert survey (NES) and adult population survey (APS) components of the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM). For the NES, 25 national experts were interviewed in order to understand the factors that constrain and promote entrepreneurial activity. The APS analysed the responses of 1,184 household members across Tonga regarding their actual experiences and perceptions of entrepreneurial activity. This analysis uses grounded theory in tandem with this model because of the lack of tested theory regarding entrepreneurship in the Pacific. The NES data was initially used in the analysis, and the triangulated confirmatory findings from the APS were used once the emergent propositions had become clear. Seven new propositions are developed that extend our existing conceptualisation of entrepreneurship. The research implications and limitations are discussed.

Markku Sotarauta & Riina Pulkkinen, Institutional Entrepreneurship for Knowledge Regions: In Search of a Fresh Set of Questions for Regional Innovation Studies, 29 Env’t & Planning C: Gov’t & Pol’y 96 (2011).

Abstract: This article explores new ways to empirically study institutional entrepreneurship on a regional level.

Ben Spigel, The Sources of Regional Variation in Canadian Self-Employment, 15 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 340 (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): The regional variation of entrepreneurship and self-employment within and across nations has been carefully studied over the past 20 years. A multitude of papers covering more than a dozen countries have examined what economic and social factors drive local entrepreneurship. This paper both adds to this literature by examining the sources of regional variation of self-employment in Canada as well as critiques it by discussing the challenge of applying findings from one country to others. Through a meta-analysis of 34 previous studies of regional entrepreneurial variation, several common factors are identified and then examined in a Canadian context. Using data from the 2006 Census of Canada, the paper uses OLS regression to test the role of economic, demographic, and social factors on non-agricultural self-employment in Canadian census metropolitan areas. Population growth, migration, unemployment, firm size and structure all play a significant role in rates of self-employment in Canada.

Jing Sun et al., Using the Concept of Resilience to Explain Entrepreneurial Success in China, 11 Int'l J. Mgmt. Enterprise 182 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): This paper aims (1) to explore resilience among Chinese entrepreneurs and its correlation with entrepreneurial types; (2) to examine the relationship between entrepreneurial type and other factors including locus of control, education and experience. A cross-sectional cohort study design was used. Fifty thousand entrepreneurs were randomly selected from 228 cities across 31 provinces in China, of which 38,890 agreed to participate in this study. Results indicated that entrepreneurs who founded a resource-based business had higher resilience scores than those who founded risk or knowledge-based ventures. The resource-based and skill-based entrepreneurs were similar to each other in terms of creativity and innovation, need for achievement, flexibility and knowledge seeking. The findings of this study suggest that institutions and small business support agencies need to provide training opportunities for entrepreneurs to develop resilience characteristics before they commence establishing business ventures.

Muhammad Tanko & Afang Helen Andow, The Impact of Entrepreneurial Skills Development Programmes on the Performance of Women Entrepreneurs in Kaduna State, Nigeria (2011), available at

Abstract (from authors): The understanding and acquisition of entrepreneurial skills, most especially in the business environment is a minimum requirement for a competent and successful entrepreneur. The study evaluates the impact of entrepreneurial skills development programmes (ESDPs) on turnover, capital, number of employees, market availability and profit before tax to the development and performance of women entrepreneurs in Kaduna state.  Data were obtained through the use of questionnaire administered to all the respondents and descriptive statistics were used to analyze the data, while the student t test, Wilcoxon W test, the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) technique and the Kruskal Wallis non-parametric equivalent statistical tools were used to test the hypotheses. The results showed that in terms of turnover level, number of employees, market availability and profit before tax, there is a significant difference between the pre and the post ESDP performance of women entrepreneurs in Kaduna state. This meant that post ESDP’s period was better than the pre period in all the variables tested. However, in terms of capital, the difference between the pre and post ESDPs performance of the women entrepreneurs was insignificant. It was concluded that ESDPs have some impact on the development and performance of women entrepreneurs’ in their businesses on all the parameters assessed. It is recommended that government should enhance level of sponsorship and encouragement of women participation in entrepreneurial skills acquisition at all levels. ESDPs in Nigeria, and particularly in Kaduna state should be redesigned, as often as possible, to meet up with the dynamism in the global business environment.

Daniel Temesgen Gelan & Getachew Tadesse Wedajo, Factors Affecting Entrepreneurial Orientation Level of Business Women: The Case of Gambela Region of Ethiopia (2013), available at

Abstract (by authors): It is widely accepted that the Micro and Small Enterprise (MSE) sectors have the potential to provide a livelihood for a considerably large number of people in least developed countries such as Ethiopia. African women entrepreneurship development is generally inadequate and beset with numerous constraints and challenges, which have to do with culture, entrepreneurial orientations and their total perceptions in entrepreneurship. This study is therefore to examine women entrepreneurial orientation, determine factors affecting entrepreneurial orientation level of business women. The result indicated that the levels of EO of business women were in low to medium level of category. The result also showed that number of business, age, level of education, prior experience, the size of the business, business age since its establishment, need of independence motivational factors, self-achievement, social network, and market availability (compete) are significantly associated with entrepreneurial orientation. Among the socio-economic variables, diversification of businesses or the tendency to own more than one business has been found to be positively related with the entrepreneurial orientation of women.

Anita Tripathy Lal, Women Entrepreneurs in India - Over the Years! (2012),  available at

Abstract (by author): A recent literature review suggests that, today Indian women entrepreneurs increasingly are a force to be reckoned with. "According to the Women’s Global Entrepreneurship study conducted in US, UK and India, commissioned by Dell (2012), it has been found that the ideal country for a woman starting a business in 2012 could well be India." So the primary objective of the research to study the significant rise of Women Entrepreneurs in India and how it has evolved since the pre-independence days (before 1947), during the British colonial days. The study also analyses the reasons that have prompted the women entrepreneurs to unleash their entrepreneurial energies into start-ups. To meet the objectives of the study both primary and secondary data have been collected. Two different structured questionnaires have been constructed and administered to a sample of women entrepreneurs and both public as well as private support system officials. Based  on both qualitative and quantitative analyses the growth of women entrepreneurship in India has been studied  in four different periods - Pre-Independence Period (before 1947), Post-Independence Period (after 1947), Post-Liberalization Period (after 1991) and Post -Global Recession period (2008 onwards). The study further strives to correlate the reasons that have  prompted the women entrepreneurs to start-up during these different periods. The study finally concludes to what extent the various support systems in India can further foster a conducive ecosystem for the Women Entrepreneurs in India.

Sandeep Vij & Hitesh Jhanji, Business Incubation: A Review of Research Orientations, Impacts and Determinants of Success (2013), available at

 Abstract (by authors): The need and importance of business incubation is amply emphasized in the recently drafted National Entrepreneurship Policy for India. Business incubators have been widely promoted and supported in the developed countries. A lot of research has been conducted on various aspects of business incubation in other countries but research on business incubation in the Indian context is in its nascent stage. The purpose of this paper is to take stock of existing publications and identify the research gaps by systematically reviewing the literature on business incubators and business incubation. This paper reviews a range of research publications on business incubation published during 1980-2012, sourced from EBSCO and PROQUEST databases, which describe incubator configurations, incubator-incubation impacts, critical success factors for incubation, incubator development, and incubatee development. It aims to provide an account of important perspectives from the literature which are likely to be of relevance to researchers, incubator managers and incubatee start-ups. The observations from this paper can provide lessons for the private and government promoters of business incubation in India for the adoption of suitable and relevant models of business incubation. The paper also identifies possible areas of future study.

Jostein Vik & Gerard McElwee, Diversification and the Entrepreneurial Motivations of Farmers in Norway, 49 J. Small Bus. Mgmt. 390 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): A series of significant pressures but also new opportunities face the agricultural sector in developed economies. Farm diversification is presented as a political solution and a viable business strategy and highlights the entrepreneurial side of farmers. This paper is a unique attempt to address the question of motivation for farm diversification using Norwegian data. The results demonstrate that social motivations are as important as economic motivations, that is, there are substantial differences in which motivations underpin different types of diversification. This suggests, first, that the literature could gain from engaging more in the variation of motivational drivers than general trends, and second, that farmers need different forms of support to develop their entrepreneurial skills. With a data set derived from a large survey (N=1607) of Norwegian farm holdings, the authors use a multinomial logistic regression model to analyze how six farm diversification categories are differently influenced by different types of motivations and other background variables.

Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian & Francis Daniel Siciliano, Then and Now: America's New Immigrant Entrepreneurs, Part VII (Ewing Marion Kauffman Foundation Research Paper; Stanford Public Law Working Paper, No. 2159875, 2012), available at

 Abstract (by authors): The period of unprecedented expansion of immigrant-led entrepreneurship that characterized the 1980s and 1990s has come to a close. Today, the growth rate of immigrant-founded companies nationwide, at 24.3 percent, has plateaued. In the high-tech hub of Silicon Valley, the proportion of immigrant-founded companies has dropped from 52.4 percent during 1995-2005 to 43.9 percent during 2006-2012. Immigrant founders of engineering and technology companies have employed roughly 560,000 workers and generated an estimated $63 billion dollars in sales during this time. While the rate of growth of immigrant entrepreneurship has stagnated, these numbers nonetheless underscore the continuing importance of high-skilled immigrants to the maintenance and expansion of the national economy. These findings are interestingly complex, since the two major skilled-immigrant groups — Indian and Chinese — are starting companies at higher rates than they did previously. Historically and today, the United States continues to benefit directly from the contributions of such immigrants. Far from expendable, high-skilled immigrants will remain a critical asset for maintaining U.S. competitiveness in the global economy. 

Sean Zielenbach, Community Development in Central West Baltimore: an Analysis of Opportunities and Limitations, 17 J. Affordable Hous. & Cmty. Dev. L. 313 (2008).

Abstract (from the introduction):  This analysis offers an objective look at the short- and medium-term community development prospects in central west Baltimore. It identifies the key assets in the area and discusses ways in which they could be leveraged to encourage positive change. It also highlights the various local and regional factors that can augment--and constrain--such change. Recognizing that there are (and will continue to be) inherent resource limitations, the analysis focuses on the most pressing issues affecting the area and offers recommendations for targeted investment over the next five years.

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Albert Park & Sangui Wang, Community-Based Development and Poverty Alleviation: An Evaluation of China’s Poor Village Investment Program (2010).

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