Social Entrepreneurship Business Resource Materials

Entrepreneurship Law Editorial Team

Books

Sutia Kim Alter, Managing the Double Bottom Line: A Business Planning Guide for Social Enterprises (2000).

Abstract (from publisher): Throughout, the manual aims to engender strategic thinking. Exercises are conceived to be multidimensional, pushing practitioners to "think outside the box." Starting, then running, a social enterprise is far from a static process. Businesses need to reinvent themselves constantly to adapt to ever-changing environments. This entails endless strategic reflection and analysis on the part of social enterprise managers and stakeholders, with an understanding that each decision they make may have a ripple effect on other aspects of their business.

Alan R. Andreasen, SOCIAL MARKETING IN THE 21ST CENTURY (2005).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):  The goal of this book is to reposition social marketing so that foundations, government agencies, and various nonprofits will approach social change in a way that reaches both upstream and downstream individuals in society.  The author outlines potential roles, restates fundamental principles, and then suggests how social marketing might be applied to a sample of nontraditional challenges.

Alan R. Andreasen & Philip Kotler, STRATEGIC MARKETING FOR NON-PROFIT ORGANIZATIONS (7th ed. 2007).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):  This book offers readers a practical foundation for marketing in nonprofit organizations.  Its coverage encompasses the entire marketing process, providing insights on strategic evaluations, positioning, market targeting, and more.

James E. Austin, The Collaboration Challenge: How Nonprofits and Businesses Succeed Through Strategic Alliances (2000).

Abstract (from Booklist): This text identifies major alliances and examines how they function, looking at the various stages through which they must pass. It explains the role of top leadership and emphasizes the importance of a strategic "fit" between the two partners. Austin suggests different areas within organizations for alignment as well as ways for partners to analyze the value of their collaboration. He then considers ongoing practical management issues and concludes with guidelines for collaborations and questions that must be addressed.

Björn Bjerke & Hans Rämö, Entrepreneurial Imagination: Time, Timing, Space and Place in Business Action (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Entrepreneurial Imagination innovatively focuses on entrepreneurial and economic action in time, timing, space and place. Schedules and places of production, working times and working places, are no longer fixed due to the effects of the contemporary economy. The authors expertly bring together a focused and themed book that deals wholly with the subjects of time and space in a phenomenological understanding of entrepreneurial ventures and related business action. They discuss theories and thinking of human action, space, place, timing and time in various entrepreneurial and business arenas, including social entrepreneuring, environmental and corporate social responsibility, network forms of entrepreneuring, urban governance and regional development. Taking a phenomenological approach to enable readers to understand entrepreneurship and related economic action clearly will prove to be inspiring for students, academics and practitioners interested in all areas of entrepreneurship and similar issues.

Paul Bloom & Edward Skloot, Scaling Social Impact: New Thinking (2010).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Many social entrepreneurs struggle to take successful, innovative programs that address social problems a local or limited basis and scale them up to expand their impact in a more widespread, deeper, and efficient way. The editors address this issue with a comprehensive collection of original papers written by leading scholars that offers the latest thinking about how to scale social impact successfully.

Eve Blossom, Material Change: Design Thinking and the Social Entrepreneurship Movement (2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Material Change is the story of architect and entrepreneur Eve Blossom, who built her design business, Lulan Artisans, on a framework of ecological, economic and social sustainability. Lulan Artisans is a for-profit social venture that designs, produces and markets contemporary textiles made by Blossom’s collaborators—over 650 weavers, dyers, spinners and finishers in Cambodia, India, Laos, Thailand and Vietnam. Lulan’s mission is ambitious: to preserve artisanal traditions; to give workers an ample wage, benefits and a safe workplace; to bring stability to communities by creating jobs; and to provide economic alternatives to human trafficking. Here, Blossom describes her travels and experiences in bustling cities and remote villages in Vietnam, Cambodia and elsewhere in Southeast Asia, as the region was opening its doors to free trade and tourism. The authors walk with her through markets where handmade fabrics are sold, and accompany her on motorbikes to visit rural villages devoted to farming and weaving. The authors learned how she formed Lulan Artisans, by getting to know the artisans and their designs, processes and heritages. Blossom’s trips to Southeast Asia put her face-to-face with the horrors of the sex trade, galvanizing her commitment to disruptive entrepreneurship. Also featured are stories by other disruptive entrepreneurs who are part of a growing movement to merge design, social compassion, and business: Muna AbuSulayman, Patrick Awuah, Shashin Chokshi, Tali Gottlieb, Joi Ito, Dr. Jordan Kassalow, Shaffi Mather, Tobias Rose-Stockwell, Juliana Rotich and Ricardo Terán. The result is a new, holistic model for the twenty-first century. 
Eve Blossom is the founder and CEO of Lulan Artisans. An architect by training, Eve lectures worldwide on sustainable integrated design and innovative business methodologies.

Richard Blundel & Nigel Lockett, Exploring Entrepreneurship: Practices and Perspectives (2011).

Abstract (adapted from the publisher): Exploring Entrepreneurship examines the nature of entrepreneurial activity in the 21st century, and aims to help students develop the skills and knowledge required by commercial and social entrepreneurs. Readers of this text will gain a deeper insight into the activities of entrepreneurs in both the commercial and social sectors and be able to reflect critically on the nature of entrepreneurship and its role in the creation of new commercial and social ventures. The text makes considerable use of case-based examples, so that students can learn from the experiences of real entrepreneurs as they struggle to create and to develop their ventures. It provides detailed coverage of many different types of entrepreneurship - from commercial, primarily profit-oriented ventures and what are often termed 'social' enterprises, where the primary aim is to address a social or environmental challenge, rather than simply to secure a profit. In contrast to most other texts, it also addresses 'anti-social' forms of entrepreneurship, with examples that range from the unethical and environmentally-destructive behaviour of legitimate firms to the shady world of organised crime

David Bornstein, HOW TO CHANGE THE WORLD: SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS AND THE POWER OF NEW IDEAS (2007).

Abstract (from publisher):  This book provides vivid profiles of social entrepreneurs. The book is an In Search of Excellence for social initiatives, intertwining personal stories, anecdotes, and analysis. Readers will discover how one person can make an astonishing difference in the world.  The case studies in the book include Jody Williams, who won the Nobel Peace Prize for the international campaign against landmines she ran by e-mail from her Vermont home; Roberto Baggio, a 31-year old Brazilian who has established eighty computer schools in the slums of Brazil; and Diana Propper, who has used investment banking techniques to make American corporations responsive to environmental dangers.

David Bornstein & Susan Davis, SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: WHAT EVERYONE NEEDS TO KNOW (2010).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):  In development circles, there is now widespread consensus that social entrepreneurs represent a far better mechanism to respond to needs than we have ever had before--a decentralized and emergent force that remains our best hope for solutions that can keep pace with our problems and create a more peaceful world.  This book provides a general overview of social entrepreneurship. In a Q & A format, it allows readers to go directly to the information they need.  The authors map out social entrepreneurship in its broadest terms as well as in its particulars.

Jerr Boschee, BOSCHEE ON MARKETING: POSITIONING & MARKETING STRATEGIES FOR SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS (2007).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):  Contains 21 columns written by Jerr Boschee for the online magazine Social Enterprise Reporter. Individual sections cover topics such as leadership, marketing fundamentals, entrepreneurial strategic planning, positioning strategies, overcoming customer resistance, strategic partnerships, pricing, marketing communications, employee communications, customer service, market research and The Strategic Marketing Matrix for Social Entrepreneurs.

Jerr Boschee, Migrating From Innovation to Entrepreneurship: How Nonprofits are Moving Toward Sustainability and Self-Sufficiency (2006).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This book covers the basic principles of social entrepreneurship, typical outcomes experienced by the pioneers in the field, some common stakeholder concerns, the single greatest obstacle for nonprofits adopting or expanding entrepreneurial strategies, and 14 critical success factors. The book also contains "A Practical Lexicon for Social Entrepreneurs" that defines more than 80 key terms (often in the form of mini-tutorials) and a selected print and electronic bibliography (the electronic entries are annotated

Jerr Boschee, The Social Enterprise Sourcebook (2001).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Profiles of 14 nonprofits that have successfully started social enterprises, including candid assessments by their senior executives of mistakes made and lessons learned.

Peter C. Brinckerhoff, Social Entrepreneurship: The Art of Mission-Based Venture Development (2000).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Far from interfering with an organizations ability to provide needed services, techniques such as marketing, cash flow analysis, property management, and good use of technology all contribute to a charitable organizations mission capability. Unlike a not-for-profit that thinks of itself as a charity, the successful not-for-profit is really a mission-based business. In an era of rapid change, increasing competition, and the need for more accountability to governments, foundations, insurers, and donors, knowing how to innovate, compete, and take reasonable risks on behalf of the mission is critical. It is, in short, the era of the social entrepreneur.

Arthur C. Brooks, SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A MODERN APPROACH TO SOCIAL VALUE CREATION (2008).

Abstract (from publisher):  This text brings together the established pedagogy of entrepreneurship with cutting edge nonprofit and public management tools.   Measuring social value, earned income, donations and government income, entrepreneurial fundraising and marketing, and social enterprise business plans.  For the entrepreneur who seeks to understand the social and non-for-profit sectors.

Peter C. Brinckerhoff, SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: THE ART OF MISSION-BASED VENTURE DEVELOPMENT (2000).

Case Studies in Social Entrepreneurship and Sustainability, Vol. 2:  The Oikos Collection (Jost Hamschmidt & Michael Pirson, eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from Amazon) : Case Studies in Social Entrepreneurship and Sustainability is the second volume resulting from the Oikos Global Case Writing Competition - an annual program launched in 2003 to promote the publication of high-quality teaching cases in corporate sustainability. This book expands the collection with award-winning global cases in the rapidly growing field of social entrepreneurship and sustainability.

In view of the growing importance of various sustainability trends, management schools are increasingly challenged to adapt their entrepreneurship and business curricula. Management education needs to reflect the trends and provide a broadened understanding of value creation. Sustainability is a concept that demands that organizations consider the legitimate expectations of different stakeholders in their value creation processes. At the same time, it underlines the fact that many sustainability trends offer new business opportunities that entrepreneurs will seize. As a result, value creation processes need to be reorganized in order to create economic capital while developing social capital and preserving natural capital.

Indeed, entrepreneurial organizations are increasingly dealing with these challenges. The case studies in this book explore both the opportunities and pitfalls entrepreneurs - working with organizations with for-profit, hybrid and non-profit business models - face in targeting sustainability issues and how their values and core assumptions impact their business strategies. They describe new patterns of value creation, new alliances, and the challenges of dealing with existing paradigms. It is clear that new ways of doing business with a common objective of maximizing social impact are substantially shaping markets and society.

David Y. Choi & Edmund R. Gray, Values-Centered Entrepreneurs and Their Companies (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book explores how many highly unorthodox leaders have built their profitable and socially responsible business enterprises, and what lessons can be learned for the next generation of entrepreneurs. The authors examine a group of over 40 entrepreneurial companies and how each balanced the profit objective with social responsibility in key aspects of their business operation – from their initial company formation, through growth, to exit – to build successful triple bottom-line companies. Choi and Gray particularly focus on how these firms’ commitment to values affected their company missions, hiring and organizational policies, marketing strategies, financial practices, exit options, and giving programs, and vice versa. In some cases, the authors find that the entrepreneurs’ social objectives have actually strengthened, not weakened, their business enterprises. Based on their extensive studies of these companies, he authors have distilled a set of commonalities. The book presents ten of the most dominant and interesting of these commonalities with a focus on those policies and decisions that appeared to depart from conventional business practice.

 Odell Cleveland & Robert J. Wineberg, Pracademics and Community Change:  A True Story of Nonprofit Development and Social Entrepreneurship During Welfare Reform  (2011). 

Abstract (from Amazon.com):   How a community, an activist, and a scholar created a 100 million dollar faith-based nonprofit workforce development corporation. This book presents the single unified case history of the Welfare Reform Liaison Project started in Greensboro, North Carolina through the eyes of co-founder and CEO the Reverend Odell Cleveland and academic consultant Bob Wineburg, whose friendship is an integral part of the narrative. Through this one story, told from the beginning in a direct, conversational tone, all those steps which were necessary to create an innovative and successful nonprofit organization are brought forth, from the development of a program model, to its implementation, and the growth of the organization over more than a decade. Told by a black practitioner and white academic who find common ground despite significant differences in background, training, and outlook, this story also takes a frank look at the racial politics and politics in general of social service networks.

Community Co-Production: Social Enterprise in Remote and Rural Communities (Jane Farmer et al. eds. 2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Governments around the globe are promoting co-production and community social enterprise as policy strategies to address the need for local, 21st century service provision - but can small communities engage spontaneously in social enterprise and what is the true potential for citizens to produce services?

This book addresses a clutch of contemporary societal challenges including: aging demography and the consequent need for extended care in communities; public service provision in an era of retrenching welfare and global financial crises; service provision to rural communities that are increasingly 'hollowed out' through lack of working age people; and, how best to engender the development of community social enterprise organizations capable of providing high quality, accessible services. It is packed with information and evidence garnered from research into the environment for developing community social enterprise and co-producing services; how communities react to being asked to co-produce; what to expect in terms of the social enterprises they can produce; and, how to make them happen.

This book is an antidote to the rhetoric of optimistic governments that pronounce co-production as a panacea to the challenges of providing local services and by drawing on the evidence from a 'real-life' international study will make policy makers more savvy about their aspirations for co-production, give service professionals practical strategies for working with communities, fill a gap in the academic evidence about community, as opposed to individual, social enterprise and reassure community members that they can deliver services through community social enterprise if the right partnerships and strategies are in place.

Creating a New Civilization Through Social Entrepreneurship (Patrick Uwe Petit ed., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Social entrepreneurs are essential to the restoration of a sustainable planet and the improvement of lives of billions of people, especially of those living in extreme poverty. Therefore, social entrepreneurs deserve further recognition and support by the international community—by governments, multinational companies, and philanthropic organizations. Creating a New Civilization through Social Entrepreneurship highlights the global movement of social entrepreneurship and some of the leading organizations and individuals that are advancing this citizen sector movement. The volume presents examples of innovative people that are tackling major social problems and triggering systemic change throughout the world today.

Lee Davis & Nicole Etchart, Profits for Nonprofits: An Assessment of the Challenges in NGO Self-Financing (1999).

Abstract (from Alliance Magazine): Profits for Nonprofits is one of a four-book series designed to further practical thinking on nonprofit self-financing. Taken together, they are intended to provide practitioners and donors with the tools to determine how self-financing strategies can be used effectively and responsibly. They are born of a research program based in Central Europe, where the shifting nature of funding is threatening the financial sustainability of parts of the non-profit sector. Initial findings from this program were presented at the CIVICUS Assembly in Budapest in 1998. This book draws upon 20 case studies and offers lessons from these experiences. The authors unashamedly believe that if NGOs are to develop and sustain not only themselves but also their work, they require not only additional sources of financing but also additional types, which go beyond traditional project grants and donations. Additionality is key. They do not advocate replacing philanthropic financing. However, in the case of ArtForum in Slovakia, they do recognize a situation where a profitable business has superseded a failed non-profit turned business. Cautionary tales also exist and the lessons of dashing unprepared into this arena are there to be learned. The authors recognize that sustainability is not merely a question of identifying sufficient financial resources. If all NGOs were rich, the problem would not have been solved. Drawing upon the work of Paula Antezana at the Arias Foundation, they offer a list of a dozen factors which contribute to sustainability, of which sufficient financial resources is but one.   

J. Gregory Dees, Jed Emerson & Peter Economy, Enterprising Nonprofits: A Toolkit for Social Entrepreneurs (2001).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): The rising spirit of social entrepreneurship has created all kinds of new opportunities for nonprofit organizations. But at the same time, many are discovering more than their share of challenges as well. Written by thinkers and practitioners in the field, Enterprising Nonprofits offers concise and engaging explanations of the most successful business tools being used by nonprofits today.

J. Gregory Dees, Jed Emerson & Peter Economy, Strategic Tools for Social Entrepreneurs: Enhancing the Performance of Your Enterprising Nonprofit (2002).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): As a follow-up to their book Enterprising Nonprofits, the authors of Strategic Tools for Social Entrepreneurs provide a full set of practical tools for putting the lessons of business entrepreneurship to work in your nonprofit. The book offers hands-on guidance that helps social sector leaders hone their entrepreneurial skills and carry out their social missions more effectively. This book is filled with examples, exercises, checklists, and action steps that bring the concepts, frameworks, and tools to life. Detailed explanations of all the tools and techniques will help you personalize and apply them to your nonprofit organization.

John DuRand, The Affirmative Enterprise (1990).

Abstract (from the United Way website): The “social enterprise” concept isn’t a new one to our community – some amount of research would direct you to agencies such as MDI, Lifetrack Resources, AccessAbility, Midwest Special Services, RISE, amongst others.  These programs have long occupied the “social enterprise” space (the founder of MDI, John DuRand, actually wrote a book on the subject – The Affirmative Enterprise), finding significant success in blending business with social value.

Jacqueline M. Edwards, Hybrid Organizations: Social Enterprise and Social Entrepreneurship (2008).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This is an introduction to hybrid organizations and the visionaries behind the concept.

William D. Eggers & Paul MacMillan, The Social Revolution: How Business, Government, and Social Enterprises Are Teaming Up to Solve Society’s Toughest Problems (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): World hunger. Climate change. Crumbling infrastructure. It’s clear that in today’s era of fiscal constraints and political gridlock, we can no longer turn to government alone to tackle these and other towering social problems. What’s required is a new, more collaborative and productive economic system. The Solution Revolution brings hope—revealing just such a burgeoning new economy where players from across the spectrum of business, government, philanthropy, and social enterprise converge to solve big problems and create public value. By erasing public-private sector boundaries, the solution economy is unlocking trillions of dollars in social benefit and commercial value. Where tough societal problems persist, new problem solvers are crowdfunding, ridesharing, app-developing, or impact-investing to design innovative new solutions for seemingly intractable problems. Providing low-cost health care, fighting poverty, creating renewable energy, and preventing obesity are just a few of the tough challenges that also represent tremendous opportunities for those at the vanguard of this movement. They create markets for social good and trade solutions instead of dollars to fill the gap between what government can provide and what citizens need.

So what drives the solution economy? Who are these new players and how are their roles changing? How can we grow the movement? And how can we participate? Deloitte’s William D. Eggers and Paul Macmillan answer these questions and more, and they introduce us to the people and organizations driving the revolution—from edgy social enterprises growing at a clip of 15 percent a year, to megafoundations, to Fortune 500 companies delivering social good on the path to profit. Recyclebank, RelayRides, and LivingGoods are just a few of the innovative organizations you’ll read about in this book. Government cannot handle alone the huge challenges facing our global society—and it shouldn’t. We need a different economic paradigm that can flexibly draw on resources, combine efforts, and create value, while improving the lives of citizens. The Solution Revolution shows the way.

John Elkington, Pamela Hartigan, and Klaus Schwab, THE POWER OF UNREASONABLE PEOPLE: HOW SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURS CREATE MARKETS THAT CHANGE THE WORLD (2008).

Abstract (based on review from Publishers Weekly): The authors argue that the best place to find tomorrow's revolutionary business models is on the unpredictable fringes of the mainstream market.  The heart of the book are the case studies, of both for-profit and nonprofit social organizations (many of them in Asian and Indian countries), which are mined for ideas and theories regarding their impact on global markets and local communities.

Tania Ellis, THE NEW PIONEERS: SUSTAINABLE BUSINESS SUCCESS THROUGH SOCIAL INNOVATION AND SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP (2010).

Product Description (from Amazon):  Social Entrepreneurs hold the key to the future way of doing business and solving social problems. They show that social and economic development can go hand in hand. The book sets the scene by creating an overview of current social megatrends affecting business and society.  It then goes on to show how businesses, non-profits and society can benefit from the innovative forces of social entrepreneurship and how they can create sustainable growth and development through social innovation and social business. It introduces, defines and illustrates the concepts of social innovation and social entrepreneurship with a wide variety of international cases that illustrate how social entrepreneurs have created successful businesses built on a social mission.  The author provides practical methods and principles for NGOs and commercial companies that want to create social business.

Jed Emerson & Fay Twersky, New Social Entrepreneurs: The Success, Challenge and Lessons of Non-Profit Enterprise Creation (1996).

Abstract (from National Housing Institute website): In the first part of the book, editor Jed Emerson, whose background includes running a social service agency before becoming director of The Roberts Foundation's Homeless Economic Development Fund, offers five detailed case studies and 16 case summaries of nonprofit organizations' ventures. The studies and summaries provide a wealth of detail, including numbers, about each venture. Not all the businesses were successful, and the book describes why some failed, and why others succeeded. Additional chapters discuss how to understand and use financials and accounting for planning. In the second section, Emerson covers a range of topics important for those thinking about starting a for-profit business, including discussions of the role of funders, board members, and employees. The book also discusses legal considerations, global competition, and individual development, and presents a fascinating, and critical, examination of Michael Porter's (the current business guru from MIT) views on inner-city job creation.

Entrepreneurship, Social Capital and Governance: Directions for the Sustainable Development and Competitiveness of Regions (Charlie Karlsson, et al eds., 2013).

Abstract (from publisher): This book highlights the role of entrepreneurship, social capital and governance for regional economic development. In recent decades, many researchers have claimed that entrepreneurship is the most critical factor in sustaining regional economic growth. However, most entrepreneurship research is undertaken without considering the fundamental importance of the regional context. Other research has emphasized the role of social capital but there are substantial problems in empirically relating measures of social capital to regional economic development. The expert contributors to this work highlight the role of governance in regional growth, an area that has so far been relatively under-researched, underpinning their findings with new theoretical and empirical evidence. They conclude that the relationship between entrepreneurship, social capital and governance in factors affecting regional economic development are complex and interdependent, and that to influence these factors and the relationship between them, policymakers must have a long-term perspective and be both patient and persistent in their efforts.

Entrepreneurship and Sustainability: Business Solutions for Poverty Alleviation from around the World (Daphne Halkias & Paul W. Thurman, eds., 2012).

Abstract (from publisher): In "Entrepreneurship and Sustainability" the editors and contributors challenge the notion that not-for-profit social entrepreneurship is the only sort that can lead to the alleviation of poverty. Entrepreneurship for profit is not just about the entrepreneur doing well. Entrepreneurs worldwide are leading successful for - profit ventures which contribute to poverty alleviation in their communities. With the challenge of global poverty before them, entrepreneurs continue to develop innovative, business-oriented ventures that deliver promising solutions to this complex and urgent agenda. This book explores how best to bring commercial investors together with those who are best placed to reach the poorest customers. With case studies from around the World, the focus of the contributions is on the new breed of entrepreneurs who are blending a profit motive with a desire to make a difference in their communities and beyond borders. A number of the contributions here also recognize that whilst much research has been devoted to poverty alleviation in developing countries, this is only part of the story. Studies in this volume also focus upon enterprise solutions to poverty in pockets of significant deprivation in high-income countries, such as the Appalachia region of the US, in parts of Europe, and the richer Asian countries. Much has been written about the achievements of socially orientated non-profit microfinance institutions. This valuable, academically rigorous but accessible book will help academics, policy makers, and business people consider what the next generation of more commercially orientated banks for the 'bottom billion' might look like.

Entrepreneurship Education in Asia (Hugh Thomas & Donna Kelley eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The continuing success of the Asian Miracle relies on an entrepreneurial revolution that has increased the productivity and flexibility of economies across the region. Yet this revolution has largely been necessity-driven, traditional and vulnerable to erosion as the region becomes increasingly prosperous and well educated. How to educate the next wave of entrepreneurs is a pressing Asian question that resonates around the world and is the subject of this volume. Hugh Thomas and Donna Kelley draw on 24 scholars from 15 institutions to report on regional entrepreneurship education. They identify problems encountered by educators and describe solutions that stimulate students to create value. The approaches are hands-on, project-based and multidisciplinary, geared to develop educator-to-business entrepreneurial ecosystems. The entrepreneurial programs described in this book involve experiencing foreign cultures, working with major corporations, consulting to small and medium sized enterprises, travelling to distant lands, addressing environmental and social problems, and reaching out to the disadvantaged. Social entrepreneurship is combined with for-profit entrepreneurship in programs that extend the concept of value creation. This book eloquently and expertly describes how entrepreneurship education – whether in Vietnam, Malaysia, Korea, Japan, China or elsewhere on the globe – can combine with community to help youth create a better world.

Alain Fayolle & Harry Matlay, Handbook of Research on Social Entrepreneurship  (2011).

Abstract (from the author): This timely Handbook provides an empirically rigorous overview of the latest research advances on social entrepreneurship, entrepreneurs and enterprises. It incorporates seventeen original chapters on definitions, concepts, contexts and strategy as well as a critical overview and an agenda for future research in social entrepreneurship. What are the forms and manifestations of social entrepreneurship? To what extent should current developments lead to a redefinition of stakeholders' strategies and roles in the quest for better consideration of the social dimension? The highly regarded group of contributors addresses these questions in some detail. They also explore social entrepreneurship from a multicultural perspective in order to highlight the diversity of social entrepreneurship forms and practices and, from a strategic perspective, to investigate the essential role played by various actors and factors in the development of social entrepreneurship. Postgraduate students and researchers studying social entrepreneurship will find this book of great interest.

Matthias Fink, Stephan Loidl & Richard Lang, Community-based Entrepreneurship and Rural Development: Creating Favorable Conditions for Small Businesses in Central Europe (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): How can municipalities in Central Europe create favorable conditions for local business? What and how can municipalities learn from each other? How can each individual in the local area contribute? And what requirements have to be met before know-how can successfully be transferred on a communal level? To answer all these questions, the authors of this book draw on results from a six-year research program and comprehensively discuss the manifold opportunities, restrictions and prerequisites of establishing favorable conditions for small and medium enterprises in rural municipalities in Central Europe.

Paul B. Firstenberg, The 21st Century Nonprofit: Managing in the Age of Governance (2d ed. 2009).

Abstract (from Foundation Center website): This new edition discusses the growing emphasis on governance reform, with a focus on three main concepts: accountability, transparency, and responsibility. New sections examine the increasingly pivotal role of board members in governance, as well as the implications for executive directors and other professional staff. Revised chapters contain updated information on strategic and operational issues, such as long-term planning, marketing, and earned income. The new edition also provides a special discussion of the strategic issues facing nonprofits during times of recession and severe economic downturn.

Paul B. Firstenberg, Managing for Profit in the Nonprofit World (1986).

Abstract (from publisher): Nonprofit organizations need to be in the business of "business", the state-of-the-art management used by the most successful FOR-profit endeavors.

Claire Gaudiani & D. Graham Burnett, Daughters Of The Declaration: How Women Social Entrepreneurs Built The American Dream (2011).

Abstract (from publisher): America's founding fathers established an idealistic framework for a bold experiment in democratic governance. The new nation would be built on the belief that "all men are created equal, and are endowed...with a right to life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." The challenge of turning these ideals into reality for all citizens was taken up by a set of exceptional American women. Distinguished scholar and civic leader Claire Gaudiani calls these women "social entrepreneurs," arguing that they brought the same drive and strategic intent to their pursuit of "the greater good" that their male counterparts applied to building the nation's capital markets throughout the nineteenth century. Gaudiani tells the stories of these patriotic women, and their creation of America's unique not-for-profit, or "social profit" sector. She concludes that the idealism and optimism inherent in this work provided an important asset to the increasing prosperity of the nation from its founding to the Second World War. Social entrepreneurs have defined a system of governance "by the people," and they remain our best hope for continued moral leadership in the world.

Stephen Goldsmith, Gigi Georges & Tim Glynn Burke, THE POWER OF SOCIAL INNOVATION: HOW CIVIC ENTREPRENEURS IGNITE COMMUNITY NETWORKS FOR GOOD (2010).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):  This book provides tools for civic entrepreneurs to create healthier communities and promote innovative solutions to public and social problems. It shows how to address issues facing our country and world by exploring new ways to collaborate across sectors and leveraging strengths for the greater good. Based on the authors’ experiences, ongoing research, and interviews with 100+ top leaders from across sectors, this book is structured around the six levers and guiding principles employed in the most effective entrepreneurial interventions.

Patricia G. Greene & John S. Butler, The Sociology of Entrepreneurship as a Provider of Context, in Entrepreneurship, Vol. 3 (Mark P. Rice & Timothy G. Habbershon, eds., 2006).

Abstract: Volume 3, "Place," considers the context in which entrepreneurship is practiced, including corporate venturing, family enterprise, franchising, and public policies designed to promote entrepreneurship and economic development. Featuring contributions from leading scholars and practitioners, and with a global perspective throughout, this unique set illuminates the dynamic role that entrepreneurship plays in promoting knowledge and economic opportunity, exploring new models, trends, and practices in entrepreneurship that will be of interest to a wide array of academics, professionals, and newcomers to the field.  

HANDBOOK OF SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP (William Schulte& Ana Maria Peredo, eds. 2010). 

Product Description (from Amazon):  Social entrepreneurship, in its many forms – whether it be the use of entrepreneurial strategies and techniques to develop and manage organizations with social and community aims, or operating for-profit enterprises that have as their mission community betterment and concern for global well-being – has captured the interest and imaginations of scholars, practitioners, governments, and the general public since the early 1990s. The sharp increases in academic research and university courses in SE and funding for social entrepreneurs has left scholars, students, and practitioners hungry for quality resources on the topic.

Georgia Levenson Keohane, Social Entrepreneurship for the 21st Century: Innovation across the Nonprofit, Private, and Public Sectors (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Modern social entrepreneurship is transforming the way we invest our money and change the world. Within 10 years, investors will channel hundreds of billions of dollars to achieve positive social and environmental impact in housing, health, education, energy, and financial services across the globe. While there are extraordinary financial and social gains to be made, many unanswered questions remain. What's the best way to harness markets to promote social change? And what kinds of investments can we make across the nonprofit, private, and public sectors to achieve a more shared prosperity? This book demystifies the complex world of social entrepreneurship, providing all the information you need to understand social investment and innovation, whether you’re a private investor, policymaker, nonprofit manager, or passionate and engaged donor.

Jill R. Kickul & Thomas S. Lyons, Understanding Social Entrepreneurship: The Relentless Pursuit of Mission in an Ever Changing World (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): Social entrepreneurship involves the application of business practices to the pursuit of social and/or environmental mission. It brings the mindset, principles, strategies, tools and techniques of entrepreneurship to the social sector, yielding innovative solutions to the vexing problems facing society – poverty, hunger, inadequate housing and homelessness, unemployment and under-employment, illiteracy, disease, environmental degradation, etc. It finds solutions where government and private sector efforts have not. This intriguing field has captured the imaginations of thousands of business and public administration students around the world, leading to the creation of hundreds of courses and programs of study to meet this burgeoning demand. This book is aimed at instructors of entrepreneurship, as it offers a comprehensive treatment of this subject. The book begins by defining social entrepreneurship, and then walks the reader through planning, organizing, funding, and finally running a socially entrepreneurial enterprise.

Patrick Kioko, Social Entrepreneurship in Action: Gered Gereedschap Case: Social Entrepreneurship Unlocking the Development Potential of Marginalized Communities: Stichting Gered Gereedschap (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): The study examined Gered Gereedschap (GG) case in view of social entrepreneurship venture. Social entrepreneurship is a field where individuals referred to as social entrepreneurs come up with innovative solutions to society’s most pressing social problems. Such individuals possess certain characteristic such as passion, ambition, persistent, courage, practical, resourceful, innovation and are long-term in their vision. GG is a Dutch non-profit organization which has no political or religious affiliation and works through volunteers to collect, clean and repair second hand tools which are sent to Africa and other developing countries to aid vocational training. GG has been doing this work since its inception in 1982 based on the vision of social value creation of Laura Dols the founder. The study concludes that GG is a social entrepreneurship venture with a social mission of assisting vocational training in Africa who lacks adequate tools to undertake such work. The provision of the used tools is a form of aid that has helped to make individuals in Africa acquire life long career which has facilitated income generation, employment creation, etc.

Philip Kotler & Alan R. Andreasen, Strategic Marketing for Nonprofit Organizations (7th ed. 2007).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): This book offers readers a practical foundation for marketing in nonprofit organizations. Its coverage encompasses the entire marketing process, providing valuable insights on strategic evaluations, positioning, market targeting, and more. For managers and future managers of nonprofit organizations, for-profit organizations, and government agencies.

Marc J. Lane, Empowering Mission-Driven Entrepreneurs (2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Today's economy has forced many charities to cut back on their service. Charitable giving is also down, and federal and state governments are pulling back on their support of the social sector. This trend has drastically changed the business model for many nonprofit organizations, requiring them to become innovative and entrepreneurial in order to survive. Increasingly, this means engaging in "social enterprise," and defining success in terms of both financial and social returns. At the same time, many for-profit businesses are also finding they can generate significant revenue while addressing social needs. Moreover, financial incentives, tax benefits and more can be realized through social enterprise activities. This important and timely book describes the special legal considerations lawyers must know when advising for-profit or not-for-profit entities that engage in "socially conscious" activities. From funding, organizational structure, business models, governance, and tax treatments, this book is the complete legal guide to social enterprise. The future demands an entrepreneurial approach to business if organizations wish to survive. Social enterprise is the heart of much of that activity. If your client is involved in, or simply considering, starting a social enterprise, this book is the essential guide to successfully navigating the state and federal rules involved. It's also an important resource for nascent and seasoned social entrepreneurs, donors, investors and other stakeholders who see social enterprise as a potent tool to drive positive social change.

Rolfe Larson, Venture Forth! The Essential Guide to Starting a Moneymaking Business in Your Nonprofit Organization (2002).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Building on the experience of many organizations, this handbook gives you a time-tested approach for finding, testing, and launching a successful nonprofit business venture. Whether your organization is large or small, the book's seven steps guide you through the entire process-from idea to complete business plan. Examples, tips, timelines, and reproducible worksheets help you: Assess the strengths and weaknesses of venture ideas to find the most promising ones; Determine which ideas fit your mission, resources, and skills; Make solid decisions based on data rather than impressions; Prepare a complete-and reassuring-financial analysis showing your breakeven point and future profitability; Write a compelling, detailed business plan and get it approved.

Manuel London & Richard G. Morfopoulos, Social Entrepreneurship: How to Start Successful Corporate Social Responsibility and Community-Based Initiatives for Advocacy and Change (2009).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): What motivates someone to become a social entrepreneur? What are the competencies needed to be effective social advocates and agents for change? This book answers these questions in an accessible and practical way, providing comprehensive guidelines, numerous examples, and sources of information and training for anyone who wants to start a community-based social advocacy and change initiative or for employees who want to start a corporate social responsibility initiative.

Ian C. MacMillan & James D. Thompson, The Social Entrepreneur’s Playbook: Pressure Test Your Start-Up Idea (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): Does Your Social Enterprise Start-Up Have What It Takes to Make a Difference and Become Self-Sufficient? With more than 26 years’ combined experience developing and studying social enterprises in the field across Africa and in the United States, Wharton professor Ian MacMillan and Dr. James Thompson, director of the Wharton Social Enterprise Program, have found that social entrepreneurs do not face greater risk than traditional entrepreneurs in launching a social enterprise; they face greater uncertainty. In The Social Entrepreneur’s Playbook, MacMillan and Thompson provide a tough-love approach that guides aspiring social entrepreneurs to systematically decrease uncertainty and significantly increase the likelihood of a successful social enterprise launch. They offer critical frameworks and tools to help them take the next step when they are ready. Filled with inspiring stories of social entrepreneurs, The Social Entrepreneur’s Playbook is a must-read for any aspiring social entrepreneur, as well as philanthropists, foundations, and nonprofits interested in doing more with less.
This free e-book project is itself a social enterprise: it seeks to generate modest, self-sustaining revenues from book sales while helping social entrepreneurs start up their ventures successfully. For that reason, the authors are following their own advice.

Thomas A. McLaughlin, Nonprofit Mergers and Alliances: A Strategic Planning Guide (1998).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): In Nonprofit Mergers and Alliances, Thomas McLaughlin describes a context for nonprofit mergers and discusses the forces that shape their use. He demonstrates that nonprofit mergers are fundamentally different from corporate mergers, that they can be of immense benefit to the community as well as the merging organizations, and that failure to merge can be disastrous for everyone. McLaughlin focuses on the concerns of the nonprofit sector: achieving the mission, retaining tax-exempt status, behaving responsibly in the community. He shows nonprofit managers and board members how to make their way through the merger process without repeating Wall Street misbehavior. Using real-world examples and case studies, Nonprofit Mergers and Alliances offers clear, practical, step-by-step guidance through the merger process from preliminary considerations to actual implementation— pointing out pitfalls and offering insightful commentary along the way.

Nonprofit Enterprise & Self-Sustainability Team (NESsT), Get Ready, Get Set: Starting Down the Road to Self-Financing (2004).

Abstract (from NESsT website): Get Ready, Get Set is designed to help the staff and board of a nonprofit organization consider their options for self-financing. Get Ready, Get Set is a beginner-level handbook that helps you decide whether (and how) starting up or expanding a social enterprise can help your organization reach its financial and mission goals. Get Ready, Get Set will help you assess your readiness for social enterprise; identify enterprise opportunities that match your core values, mission, competencies and goals; and assess the feasibility of enterprise ideas and your capacity to undertake them.

Nonprofit Enterprise & Self-Sustainability Team (NESsT), The NGO Business Hybrid: Is the Private Sector the Answer? (1997).

Abstract (from NESsT website): The concept of "organizational sustainability" for grassroots community organizations in developing countries has generated mounting interest in recent years in light of both diminishing development resources and increased expectations for Southern NGOs. Generating a sufficient source of income for NGO programmatic activities is one of the oldest and greatest conundrums for NGO leaders around the world. NGOs have become increasing dependent on project-based donor funds which limit their abilities to plan strategically and independently. The intention of this study is to critically examine the idea of NGO "self-financing" as one component of a strategy for NGO financial sustainability. The study closely examines an international group of over 15 NGOs attempting to generate their own sources of income through commercial ventures, and sales of services or products. The intention is to identify some of the key issues and obstacles that exist in implementing self-financing approaches to supplement traditional public and private project-based donor funding.

Nonprofit Enterprise & Self-sustainability Team (NESsT), Risky Business: The Impacts of Merging Mission and Market (2004).

Abstract (from NESsT website): An important contribution to the growing debate on “social return on investment,” Risky Business uses analyses of 45 social enterprise cases from 15 countries to examine impact in terms of financial performance, mission/values, organizational culture, relations with stakeholders, etc. Risky Business challenges many of the assumptions made about performance “measurement” and “metrics,” pointing out the unique challenges of quantifying and qualifying the financial and social impacts of social enterprise.

The Nonprofit Entrepreneur: Creating Ventures to Earn Income (Edward Skloot ed., 1988).

Abstract (from Foundation Center website): Nonprofit enterprise exists along a spectrum of activity starting with traditional fee-for-service charges and extending into full-scale commercial activity. According to the Urban Institute's Nonprofit Sector Project, approximately 15 percent of nonprofits actually engage in commerce, but more than 70 percent now earn some money through fees and service charges. It is this larger cluster of organizations for whom this book is relevant, since many organizations that charge fees for service commonly operate in a businesslike, market-sensitive manner. They are poised to expand into product or service marketing if they have not already done so. Indeed, examining and updating fee-for-service policies and practices is one starting point for a move into enterprise.

Patrick Uwe Petit, Creating A New Civilization Through Social Entrepreneurship  (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon.com) : Humanity is confronted with the gravest financial crisis and economic recession since the Great Depression. Political leaders, national ministries of finance, and central banks around the world are trying to prop up their countries’ sinking economies and arrest a downward economic spiral by innovative financial rescue and bank bailout plans, as well as economic stimulus and recovery packages. These measures are being taken to reestablish trust in the economy and to trigger an economic revival. Despite these efforts, stagnation seems imminent, as uncertainty leads businesses and consumers to place spending and investing decisions on hold.

Social entrepreneurs are essential to the restoration of a sustainable planet and the improvement of lives of billions of people, especially of those living in extreme poverty. Therefore, social entrepreneurs deserve further recognition and support by the international community—by governments, multinational companies, and philanthropic organizations. Creating a New Civilization through Social Entrepreneurship highlights the global movement of social entrepreneurship and some of the leading organizations and individuals that are advancing this citizen sector movement. This volume presents examples of innovative people that are tackling major social problems and triggering systemic change throughout the world today.

Ryszard Praszkier & Andrzej Nowak, Social Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice (2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book is about the creative ways in which social entrepreneurs solve pressing and insurmountable social problems. Theories of social change are presented to help demystify the 'magic' of making an immense, yet durable and irreversible, social impact. Utilizing case studies drawn from various fields and all over the world, the authors document how social entrepreneurs foster bottom-up change that empowers people and societies. They also review the specific personality traits of social entrepreneurs and introduce the new kind of leadership they represent.

Rory Ridley-Duff & Mike Bull, Understanding Social Enterprise: Theory and Practice  (2011).

Abstract (from Amazon.com): The first authoritative student textbook on the subject explores the issues of understanding the context and processes of Social Enterprise. In 12 comprehensive chapters the authors discuss and illustrate both theoretical and practical considerations for the field. Each chapter contains: a summary of key topics covered; illuminating and engaging international case studies to illustrate the themes covered and link them to practice; reflection boxes to enable students to critically consider their interpretation of issues raised; informative further reading; and links to online information about social enterprise projects. There is also an accompanying website with a full instructors’ manual, including PowerPoint slides and extra case studies, for lecturers and access to full-text journal articles and online exercises for students.

Andy Robinson, Selling Social Change (Without Selling Out) (2002).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): In Selling Social Change (Without Selling Out) expert fundraising trainer and consultant Andy Robinson shows nonprofit professionals how to initiate and sustain successful earned income ventures that provide financial security and advance an organization's mission. Step by step, this invaluable resource shows how to organize a team, select a venture, draft a business plan, find start-up funding, and successfully market goods and services. Robinson includes critical information on the tax implications of earned income and the pros and cons of corporate partnerships. The book also addresses when to consider outsourcing, collaborating with competitors, and raising additional funds to expand the business.

Rupert Scofield, The Social Entrepreneur’s Handbook: How to Start, Build, And Run a Business That Improves the World (2011).

Abstract (from the backcover ): In The Social Entrepreneur’s Handbook, author Rupert Scofield—president and CEO of FINCA International—gives you a practical plan for doing what you might have thought wasn’t possible: becoming a driving force for good by using business practices typically reserved for amassing personal wealth. Scofield teaches you how to: (a) focus your passions for social or environmental change into a single, achievable pursuit; (b) create a business plan that uses commercial entrepreneur best practices for socially beneficial ends; and (c) mitigate the personal, financial, and professional risk that comes with running a nonprofit organization.

Ruth Shapiro, The Real Problem-Solvers: Social Entrepreneurs in America (2012).

Abstract: (from publisher): Today, "social entrepreneurship" describes a host of new initiatives, and often refers to approaches that are breaking from traditional philanthropic and charitable organizational behavior.
The Real Problem Solvers brings together leading entrepreneurs, funders, investors, thinkers, and champions in the field to answer these questions from their own, first-person perspectives. Contributors include marquee figures, such as Nobel Laureate Muhammad Yunus, Ashoka Founder Bill Drayton, Jacqueline Novogratz, Founder of the Acumen Fund, and Sally Osberg, CEO of the Skoll Foundation. The core chapters are anchored by an introduction, a conclusion, and question-and-answers sections that weave together the voices of various contributors. In no other book are so many leaders presented side-by-side. Therefore, this is the ideal accessible and personal introduction for students of and newcomers to social entrepreneurship.

Bill Shore, Revolution of the Heart: A New Strategy for Creating Wealth and Meaningful Change (1995).

Abstract (from Publishers Weekly): Shore posits that welfare programs, private charities and nonprofit agencies fail to solve social problems because many compete for the same limited funds, operate inefficiently and/or use little creativity. He proposes alliances with businesses willing to dedicate part of their profits to solutions. As examples, he cites Working Assets and the enterprises of Paul Newman, Joseph Kennedy, Ben & Jerry's and his own Share Our Strength (SOS). These are driven by people of social vision who, while creating jobs and wealth, at the same time provide new funding sources for social programs. Sometimes a nonprofit, such as SOS concerned primarily with hunger enters into a partnership with an existing company, the one providing products or skills, the other devising marketing vehicles for them, and together creating new resources for social projects.

Bill Shore, The Cathedral Within: Transforming Your Life by Giving Something Back (1999).

Abstract (from Amazon.com Review): The Cathedral Within uses the metaphor of architecture to look at the way individuals allocate their resources to improve public life. Just as the enduring magnificence of a cathedral is not erected overnight, so, too, the transformation of a society takes many, many years to complete. And just as the construction of a cathedral is less a reflection of its builders' interest in masonry than a testament to the soaring reach of the human spirit, philanthropy is not so much a response to need as to a basic human requirement to give something meaningful back to society.

Social Entrepreneurship (Danielle N. Sampson ed., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The term "social entrepreneurship" describes the efforts of often highly motivated individuals and organizations to solve economic and social problems for the benefit of society in general through the use of business methods and innovative strategies. This may involve the development and application of new inventions, the applications of existing technologies, and the development of collaborative partnerships that leverage key resources necessary to achieve pre-determined and well-defined goals. This new book provides an overview and analysis of the differing interpretations of social entrepreneurship, as well as its contributions and recent legislative proposals and options.

SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP: A SKILLS APPROACH (Robert Gunn & Christopher Durkin, eds. 2010).

Product Description (from Amazon):  Outstanding social entrepreneurs inspire students, transform communities, and ignite innovative approaches to solving social needs and generating new social enterprises across the world. The in-depth theoretical study of stakeholder engagement, financial options, leadership management and organizational challenges is complemented by compelling case studies of real social enterprise success from across the UK, US, China and India.

Social Entrepreneurship: How Businesses Can Transform Society (Thomas S. Lyons ed., 2012).

Abstract (from publisher): Social entrepreneurship is the practice of using the mindset, tools, techniques, and processes of entrepreneurship to confront pressing social issues—an intriguing concept that American business is just beginning to understand. Social Entrepreneurship: How Businesses Can Transform Society brings together a group of expert contributors who offer the very latest thinking about the tremendous potential of this rapidly growing field.

Unlike other books on the subject that tend to be merely descriptive and/or inspirational, this set comprises three hands-on, how-to volumes that dig deeply into the major factors that impact social entrepreneurship. Each volume addresses one of three important aspects of setting up and running a successful enterprise: legal/organizational structure; marketing; and performance measurement and management. The author examines root concepts in detail, and spotlights opportunities, challenges, and the considerations involved in implementation. Practitioners will especially appreciate the set's practical insights and the contributors' efforts to link theory to practice in a way that facilitates effective action.

Social Entrepreneurship: New Paradigms of Sustainable Social Change (Alex Nicholls ed., 2006).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): "Social Entrepreneurship" is a term that has come to be applied to the activities of grass-roots activists, NGOs, policy makers, international institutions, and corporations, amongst others, which address a range of social issues in innovative and creative ways. Included in the volume are contributions from Muhammad Yunus, winner of the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize and the father of microfinance, Geoff Mulgan, former head of the British prime minister's policy unit, and Bill Drayton, founder of the Ashoka network of social entrepreneurs.

Social Entrepreneurship as a Catalyst for Social Change (Charles Wankel & Larry Pate eds., 2013).

Abstract (from publisher): Social Entrepreneurship as a Catalyst for Social Change contains twenty chapters on the impact of social entrepreneurial ventures within a variety of cultural and national contexts. From Brazil to Croatia, from Thailand to Greenland, this book is rare in that it provides a rich landscape in which to imagine additional efforts to bring about positive social change. The case studies cover a broad range of topics with one common theme-how can we learn from what others are doing in the emerging field of social entrepreneurship? The various cases will inspire budding entrepreneurs to new heights of awareness to support the alleviation of poverty in many contexts. Part Two, Lessons from the Field: How Social Entrepreneurial Companies are Succeeding, discusses the similarities and differences that social entrepreneurial ventures and other businesses must face to be successful. Other topics covered include Entrepreneur Bootcamp for Veterans, microfinance, social entrepreneurship education, and development of a culture of social entrepreneurship. Part Three, Going from Local to Global, explores the challenges of a social enterprise as it transitions from a national venture to an international one. The relationship between social entrepreneurship and local business development in places such as Sicily is discussed through case studies. A stage theory of social venture internationalization is put forth. Research connecting social media and social entrepreneurship is used to illustrate the importance of social networks in creating positive social change. Part four, Challenges in Social Entrepreneurship, explores the challenges that social entrepreneurial ventures face. Ethics of intellectual property rights in social enterprises is a focal topic in this section. Social franchising as an approach to social entrepreneurship is illustrated.

Social Entrepreneurship in the Age of Atrocities: Changing our World (Zachary D. Kaufman, ed., 2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): The authors in this book address the clear need for further examination of social entrepreneurship. They discuss the challenges, obstacles, and opportunities of the field and lend new insight to the concept, history, and methodologies of social entrepreneurship. The book profiles case studies based on some of the most innovative and effective social enterprises addressing atrocities, including the National Vision for Sierra Leone, Asylum Access, the Kigali Public Library, Indego Africa, Generation Rwanda, Orphans Against AIDS, Americans for Informed Democracy, and Children of Abraham. Social Entrepreneurship in the Age of Atrocities will inform, instruct, and build the community of social entrepreneurs. This collection of first-hand accounts is an inspiring and informative addition to the evolving social entrepreneurship literature. It will be of particular interest to social entrepreneurs; students, scholars, and practitioners of business, management, public policy, social policy, and development studies; anyone with a philanthropic mindset; and all those who are invested in creating and maintaining a socially responsible, accountable world.

Social Responsibility, Entrepreneurship and the Common Good: International and Interdisciplinary Perspectives (Carole Bonanni et al. eds., 2012).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This book is an exploration of the interplay between social responsibility, entrepreneurship and the common good which is organized into four sections: business and the common good; educating responsible entrepreneurs; corporate social responsibility (CSR) challenges and the common good; and CSR and entrepreneurship in emerging economies.

Social and Sustainable Entrepreneurship (G. T. Lumpkin & Jerome A. Katz eds., 2011).

Abstract (adapted from publisher): This volume considers the timely issues of social and sustainable entrepreneurship. The chapters consider in depth the issues, problems, contexts, and processes that make entrepreneurial enterprises more social and/or sustainable. Top researchers from a diverse set of perspectives have contributed their latest research on a variety of topics such as the role of entrepreneurial bricolage in generating innovations in a social context (Gundry, Kickul, Griffins, and Bacq) and emerging themes in social entrepreneurship education (Thiru). Several chapters tackle lingering definitional issues such as the distinctions between social, sustainable, and environmental entrepreneurship (Dean, Sarason, and Neenan), or propose social entrepreneurship research agendas based on key research questions found in prior studies (Gras, Mosakowski, and Lumpkin). There are brief histories of social change and their entrepreneurial implications (Kucher and Summers), and frameworks for studying different types of social and sustainable entrepreneurship (Lichtenstein). Each of the chapters, in its own way, addresses the progress and promise of social and sustainable entrepreneurship as a future research domain of growing interest and importance.

Richard Steckel, Robin Simons & Peter Lengsfelder, Filthy Rich & Other Nonprofit Fantasies: Changing the Way Nonprofits Do Business in the 90s (1989).

Abstract (from Library Journal): Using case studies of a children's museum and a social service organization, this is an instructional manual for the nonprofit professional or board member on developing income-earning ventures within the context of the nonprofit structure. Because the examples and lessons are mostly from museums and small social service agencies, this book would serve these organizations well. It does not explore the methods employed by performing arts, hospitals, and educational nonprofits, all of which have long utilized profit-making ventures to underwrite their programs. The text is enlivened with popular culture quotes, dialogue from movies, cartoons, and the like.

Richard Steckel, Robin Simons, Jeffrey Simons & Norman Tanen, Making Money While Making a Difference: How to Profit with a Nonprofit Partner (1999).

Abstract (from Amazon Product Description): Essential strategies to show companies how to partner with nonprofits -- and make money.

Richard Steckel, Robin Simons & Peter Lengsfelder, FILTHY RICH: HOW TO TURN YOUR NONPROFIT FANTASIES INTO COLD, HARD CASH (2d ed. 2000).

Abstract (from product description at Amazon.com):   A guide for teaching non-profit managers how to navigate the shark-infested economy.  A comprehensive handbook revealing a modern strategy for business and marketing that is designed to help struggling non-profits develop and grow. Includes step-by-step instructions.

Elizabeth U, Raising Dough: The Complete Guide to Financing a Socially Responsible Food Business (2013).

Abstract (from publisher): More and more entrepreneurs are using food-based businesses to solve social and environmental problems - and yet the majority of them report that a lack of access to capital prevents them from launching, maintaining, or growing their ventures. Raising Dough is an unprecedented guide to the full range of financing options available to support sustainable food businesses.

Raising Dough provides valuable insights into the world of finance, including descriptions of various capital options, including traditional debt and equity, government grant and loan programs, and cutting-edge models such as crowdfunding and community-based alternatives; guiding questions to help determine which capital options are the most appropriate given the size, stage, entity type, growth plans, mission, and values of an enterprise; case studies and testimonials highlighting the experiences of food system entrepreneurs who have been there before, including both success stories and cautionary tales; and referrals to sources of capital, financiers, investor networks, and other financial resources. Written primarily for people managing socially responsible food businesses, the resources and tips covered in this book will benefit social entrepreneurs - and their investors - working in any sector.

VALUES AND OPPORTUNITIES IN SOCIAL ENTREPRENEURSHIP (Kai Hockerts, Johanna Mair & Jeffrey Robinson, eds. 2010).

Product Description (from Amazon):  Over the past years social entrepreneurship has grown as a research field. In this third edited volume we have collected contributions studying particularly questions of values in Social Entrepreneurship as well as the identification and exploitation of Social Venturing Opportunities.

Warren Tranquada; John Baker & John Pepin, ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE SOCIAL SECTOR (2007).

Abstract (from publisher):  Written for students and practitioners, this unique text, with Harvard cases, provides detailed analysis and frameworks for achieving maximum impact through social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector enables readers to attain an in depth understanding of the distinctive characteristics of the social enterprise context and organizations. The authors offer tools to develop the knowledge to pursue social entrepreneurship more strategically and achieve mission impact more efficiently, effectively, and sustainably. 

Warren Tranquada; John Baker & John Pepin, SOCIAL SECTOR ENTREPRENEURSHIP AND INNOVATION (2007).

Abstract (from publisher):  This booklet is a concise reference guide intended for non-profit organizations who wish to be more entrepreneurial. Social sector entrepreneurship may include starting an earned income business, but this does not need to be the only definition. Entrepreneurship is really an attitude, rather than an activity. The booklet particularly explores strategic planning, idea creation, earned income, partnerships, business planning, marketing, organizational structure, financing and general resources. Each page of this book is a self-contained list of tips, resources or concepts pertaining to a specific topic. Any page can be read in isolation, or you can read the guide cover-to-cover.

Jane C. Wei-Skillern, James E. Austin, Herman B. Leonard & Howard H. Stevenson, ENTREPRENEURSHIP IN THE SOCIAL SECTOR (2007).

Abstract:  This text, with Harvard cases, provides detailed analysis and frameworks for achieving maximum impact through social entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship in the Social Sector enables readers to attain an in depth understanding of the distinctive characteristics of the social enterprise context and organizations. The authors offer tools to develop the knowledge to pursue social entrepreneurship more strategically and achieve mission impact more efficiently, effectively, and sustainably.

Muhammad Yunus, BUILDING SOCIAL BUSINESS: THE NEW KIND OF CAPITALISM THAT SERVES HUMANITY'S MOST PRESSING NEEDS (2010).

Product Description (from Amazon):  Muhammad Yunus, the practical visionary who pioneered microcredit and, with his Grameen Bank, won the 2006 Nobel Peace Prize, has developed a visionary new dimension for capitalism which he calls “social business.” By harnessing the energy of profit-making to the objective of fulfilling human needs, social business creates self-supporting, viable commercial enterprises that generate economic growth even as they produce goods and services that make the world a better place. In this book, Yunus shows how social business has gone from being a theory to an inspiring practice, adopted by leading corporations, entrepreneurs, and social activists across Asia, South America, Europe and the US. He demonstrates how social business transforms lives; offers practical guidance for those who want to create social businesses of their own; explains how public and corporate policies must adapt to make room for the social business model; and shows why social business holds the potential to redeem the failed promise of free-market enterprise.

Articles

Ellen Baker et al., Emergence, Social Capital and Entrepreneurship: Understanding Networks from the Inside, 13 Emergence: Complexity & Org. 21 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): Communities are a major research context for both social capital and entrepreneurship, and 'networks' is a core concept within both frameworks. There is need for conceptualizing network formation processes, and for qualitative studies of the relational aspects of networks and networking, to complement the existing mainly quantitative studies. Within complexity theory, emergence has been linked with formation of entities including networks, and with social entrepreneurship. In this paper, community networks are interpreted as an emergent dynamic process of action and interaction through an empirical case study conducted in an urban community setting. Interviews were conducted with experiential experts at networking. The study was designed within a social capital framework, but frequent reporting of entrepreneurship prompted additional analysis. Practical and theoretical implications of the network study findings are examined in light of the three frameworks together, and further empirical studies are suggested.

Louis Bassano & James C. McConnon Jr., Strategic Partnerships That Strengthen Extension's Community-Based Entrepreneurship Programs: An Example from Maine, J. Extension (October 2011), http://www.joe.org/joe/2011october/a3.php.

Abstract (from authors): This article explains how Extension can enhance and expand its nationwide community-based entrepreneurship programs by developing strategic partnerships with other organizations to create highly effective educational programs for rural entrepreneurs. The activities and impacts of the Down East Micro-Enterprise Network (DEMN), an alliance of three organizations with economic development missions in Maine, is used to showcase effective strategies that identify, create, and sustain strategic partnerships; build on their strengths; and overcome potential challenges. This Extension project was part of a statewide effort in Maine to build and strengthen networks of business service providers and improve service delivery to Maine's entrepreneurs.

Abhishek Bhati & Mathew J. Manimala, Talent Acquisition and Retention in Social Enterprises: Innovations in HR Strategies (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1820643.

Abstract (from the authors): This paper discusses innovative HR strategies adopted by social enterprises to attract and retain talent, such as offering jobs to people with vision and value congruence, enhancing the credibility of the organization through brand building, providing opportunities for personal growth, creating a sense of ownership among employees through participation in decision making, creating sense of ownership among employees by giving equity shares, creating entrepreneurial opportunities within the organization, finding employees from among beneficiaries, attracting employees to serene lifestyle in peaceful and scenic location and providing attractive fringe benefits to employees. Collectively these strategies seem to suggest that social enterprises adopt a ‘partnership paradigm’ for managing their employees.

Adam Bluestein, Start a Company. Change the World. A Practical Guide to Social Entrepreneurship, Inc., April 2011, at 71.

Abstract (from the magazine):  It used to be that if you wanted to make a difference, you joined a nonprofit. And if you wanted to make money, you launched a business. These days, it's not. so simple. More nonprofits are being run like fast-grow start-ups. And more traditional companies are being built around social missions.

In the pages that follow, we shine a light on this new universe of social entrepreneurship. First, we meet Fred Keller, the founder of Cascade Engineering, a $250 million Michigan plastics manufacturer, who recently turned his business into a B Corporation, the highest standard for socially responsible businesses.

Then we investigate five more business models--and meet the entrepreneurs who have adopted them. For even more, head to www.inc.com/social-entrepreneurs-2011 to check out our start-up guide for would-be social entrepreneurs and watch video interviews with some of the founders in the stories that follow.

Christiane S. Bode & Filipe M. Santos, The Organizational Foundations of Corporate Social Entrepreneurship (INSEAD Working Paper No. 2013/07/EFE/ST/ICE, 2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2202105.

 Abstract (by authors): Large firms are increasingly incubating social business initiatives that aim at the creation of value for groups who are not current stakeholders. The authors argue that these initiatives, which we call corporate social entrepreneurship (CSE) initiatives, are the work of social intrapreneurs who are responding to perceived shortcomings in society and utilize the resources of the firm to provide market based solutions to address them. This paper analyzes the origins of CSE and, takes the perspective of the social intrapreneur, outlines the process through which a CSE initiative gains justification and access to resources inside a corporation, develops its business model, and grows. In contrast to received wisdom in the corporate entrepreneurship literature, the authors argue that CSE initiatives should not be hidden from view but instead quickly move to secure approval and mobilize resources. It is proposed that such outcome is favored by a process of ambiguity creation rather than reduction and that, ironically, social intrapreneurs should focus on financial sustainability ahead of growth. Our work is the first attempt at conceptualizing the process of corporate social entrepreneurship, an increasingly prevalent phenomenon that can have important consequences for both organization theory and economic prosperity.

Jerr Boschee, Eight Basic Principles for Nonprofit Entrepreneurs, Nonprofit World15-18 (July-August 2001).

Jerr Boschee, Keep or Kill? Score Your Programs: Use This Tool to Decide Which Activities to Nurture - and Which to Abandon, Nonprofit World12-15(September-October 2003).

Emily L. Chamlee-Wright & Virgil Henry Storr, The Role of Social Entrepreneurship in Post-Katrina Community Recovery, 2 Int’l J. Innovation & Regional Dev. 149 (2010).

Abstract (from the author):   This article explores the role of social entrepreneurship in post-Katrina community recovery. Relying on interviews with a wide variety of stakeholders, including residents, business owners and managers, church pastors, non-profit directors and employees and rental property owners, the authors conclude that social entrepreneurs perform several key factors after a disaster. These include: (a) helping to solve the collective action problem associated with deciding to return and rebuild, (b) organizing and engaging in outreach, activism and advocacy on behalf of their communities, and  (c) directly assisting in rebuilding efforts and providing essential services. We also pay special attention to how some of these efforts are being frustrated by policy makers and officials.

M. Tina Dacin et al., Social Entrepreneurship: A Critique and Future Directions, 22 Org. Sci. 1203 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): Work on social entrepreneurship constitutes a field of study that intersects a number of domains, including entrepreneurial studies, social innovation, and nonprofit management. Scholars are beginning to contribute to the development of this new discipline through efforts that attempt to trace the emergence of social entrepreneurship as well as by comparing it to other organizational activities such as conventional entrepreneurship. However, as a nascent field, social entrepreneurship scholars are in the midst of a number of debates involving definitional and conceptual clarity, boundaries of the field, and a struggle to arrive at a set of relevant and meaningful research questions. This paper examines the promise of social entrepreneurship as a domain of inquiry and suggests a number of research areas and research questions for future study.

Geoffrey Desa & Sandip Basu, Optimization or Bricolage? Overcoming Resource Constraints in Global Social Entrepreneurship, 7 Strategic Entrepren. J. 26 (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2177185.

Abstract (adapted from authors): Resources play a vital role in the development of an entrepreneurial venture. For ventures operating in the public interest, the process of effective resource mobilization can be especially critical to the social mission. However, there has been limited empirical examination of the approaches used by social ventures to mobilize critical resources. The authors study two processes of resource mobilization -- optimization and bricolage, and examine the antecedent conditions that influence a venture’s selection of these processes. The instant theory predicts that environmental munificence and organizational prominence have U-shaped associations with the use of bricolage and positive associations with the use of optimization. The authors test their hypotheses on a sample of 202 technology social ventures from 42 countries, and discuss implications for the social entrepreneurship and broader entrepreneurship literatures.

Autar S. Dhesi, Diaspora, Social Entrepreneurs and Community Development, 37(9) Int’l J. Soc. Econ. 703 (2010).

Abstract (from author): Purpose - In view of significance of social entrepreneurial activity for community development, the purpose of this paper is to attempt to identify attributes of social entrepreneurs and philanthropists among returning successful diaspora in North Indian villages. Philanthropists are defined by the fact that they only invest money, whereas the social entrepreneurs invest their activities as well. An attempt is also made to ascertain key determinants and processes influencing outcomes of social entrepreneurial activity with a view to facilitate it. Design/methodology/approach - Emphasis is on qualitative analysis based on interviews of scientifically sampled respondents. However, the paper suggests that the rational choice approach is inappropriate to address the issue of community development. An approach based on a broader view of man in works of some classical economists like Adam Smith is more useful. Findings - The results of empirical analysis suggest that there exist substantial factors, such as early socialization, experience in community work, education and health, that differentiate social entrepreneurs and philanthropists. Salience of relationship between formal and informal institutions, personal traits and social skills of social entrepreneurs in influencing outcomes of social entrepreneurial activity is indicated. By investing moral and material resources in communities, social entrepreneurs augment social capital and facilitate social action. In contrast, philanthropists may add to distortions in community functioning, especially if they opt to operate through largely dysfunctional formal local institutions due to structural impasse in rural areas. Research limitations/implications - The paper pertains to Indian Punjab, an area with a long history of emigration. However, researchers need to take into account distinct socio-economic conditions in Punjab when designing studies for other areas. Practical implications - Policy measures addressing hurdles in the way of social entrepreneurial activity can speed up the modernization of traditional communities. Originality/value - The paper adds to understanding of what motivates human behaviour in economic analysis of community development. Further, it makes an important distinction between the roles of the philanthropist and the social entrepreneur in community development. The paper would be useful to researchers desirous of doing similar exercises in other areas.

Sandrine Emin & Nathalie Schieb-Bienfait, How Does the Non-profit Economy Affect Entrepreneurship?, 14 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 456 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from journal): How and on what basis can one can analyse the entrepreneurial process in the non-profit sector? This article is based on a critical discussion of four paradigms of value creation, innovation, business opportunity and creation of organisation analysed by Verstraete and Fayolle (2005). The authors examine how these four paradigms can help analyse social entrepreneurship. The authors suggest that the non-profit sector challenges these four paradigms of entrepreneurship. They suffer from limitations due to assumptions that are not compatible with the non-profit sector. Lastly they conclude that a new set of assumptions should be introduced to provide new insight into social entrepreneurship.

Robert T. Esposito, The Social Enterprise Revolution in Corporate Law: A Primer on Emerging Corporate Entities in Europe and the United States and the Case for the Benefit Corporation, 4 Wm. & Mary Bus. L. Rev. 639 (2013).

Abstract (by author): Remarkably, in the face of a global recession, the social enterprise sector continued to experience extraordinary growth in both financial support and the number of newly authorized corporate entities aimed at social entrepreneurs who seek to use the power of business to simultaneously achieve profit and social or environmental benefits. This Article highlights recent developments in the social enterprise movement in Europe and the United States and focuses on the emergence of a surprisingly broad range of newly authorized corporate entities on both continents in response to the needs of social entrepreneurs. These include social cooperatives and the community interest company in Europe, as well as the L3C, the flexible purpose corporation, the social purpose corporation, and the benefit corporation in the United States. In so doing, this Article emphasizes the truly international scope of the social enterprise movement and explains the growing divergence in approaches to social enterprise between continental Europe and the United States. This Article suggests that the benefit corporation, which imposes a new duty to consider stakeholder interests, is currently the most effective vehicle through which social entrepreneurs can ensure their blended value goals are being considered and achieved. This Article concludes by responding to critiques of profit-distribution in social enterprise, making the case for the benefit corporation, and suggesting some statutory and tax reforms to further foster the social enterprise revolution.

Pilar Ester Arroyo-Lopez et al., The Role of the Social Entrepreneur as Coordinator of a Social Network, 14 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 271 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): The term social entrepreneur (SE) has been applied to describe individuals or organisations strongly linked to a community and able to attract resources to create social value. The objective of this work is to further explore the social entrepreneur role as a bridge among multiple organisations and to understand how the SE evolves over time from an individual to a combined effort. To fulfill the research objective, the specific case of Bioplaneta was selected for in-depth analysis. This civil association supports socially disadvantaged Mexican communities through the creation of environmentally responsible businesses. The specification of activities performed by the integrants of Bioplaneta|s network shows the main role of the SE is to facilitate the exchange of knowledge, the accumulation of resources and the management of symbiotic relationships among private and public organisations. The case concludes this social entrepreneur is able to capitalise market opportunities, thanks to its relationships with multiple institutions.

Saul Estrin et al., For Benevolence and for Self-Interest: Social and Commercial Entrepreneurial Activity Across Nations (IZA Discussion Paper No. 5770, 2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1867039.

Abstract (adapted from authors): The authors conceptualize social entrepreneurship as a source of social capital which, when present in the environment, enhances commercial entrepreneurship. The authors also argue that social entrepreneurship should be recognized as a second form of Baumol's (1990) productive entrepreneurship and that it will therefore compete at the individual level for resources with commercial entrepreneurship. Unlike institutional void theory, the authors see social entrepreneurship as conditional on institutional quality, but consistent with the institutional void perspective the authors see it as filling the gaps where government activism is lower. These arguments motivate the hypotheses that the authors test and largely confirm applying multilevel modelling. This analysis is based on population-representative samples in 47 countries (the 2009 GEM dataset).

Christopher D. Hilton, Low-Profit Limited Liability Companies (L3cs): Many Traps for the Unwary Social Entrepreneur, 87 Tul. L. Rev. 169 (2012).

(Abstract by author): Amid a sluggish economy and fiscal challenges at every level of government, the low-profit limited liability company (L3C) has spread rapidly over the past four years, promising a way to spur investment in small businesses and achieve socially beneficial goals with minimal governmental expense or oversight. The L3C's calculated and focused marketing campaign has convinced eight states, including Louisiana, to adopt this new business structure, but the substance of this corporate form leaves much to be desired. Although the L3C is designed to combine investment capital from nonprofit foundations and private investors, the current L3C laws fail to deliver on that promise. The L3C business form, with its distortion of tax policy, inherently conflicting goals, and intractable governance problems, offers nothing but pitfalls and obstacles to the socially beneficial, hybrid enterprises that it purports to help.

Brigitte Hoogendoorn et al., Social Entrepreneurship and Performance: The Role of Perceived Barriers and Risk (ERIM Report Series, Reference No. ERS-2011-016-ORG, 2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1910483.

Abstract (from authors): This study investigates if and in what way social entrepreneurs are hampered in turning their efforts into sustainable organizations. Using binary logit regressions and unique data containing approximately 26,000 individual-level data points for 36 countries, this study assesses the influences of perceived environmental barriers, risk variables, and socio-demographic variables on the probability of being a social entrepreneur versus a commercial entrepreneur. The findings confirm that socially motivated entrepreneurs are less likely to survive the earliest levels of entrepreneurial engagement. Several factors have been identified to explain this underperformance. Compared to commercial entrepreneurs, social entrepreneurs perceive more financial and informational start-up barriers, are more afraid of personal failure and bankruptcy, and can be found in the lower and higher age categories. In addition, this study found that social entrepreneurs are more likely to be female and highly educated than are their commercial counterparts.

James Katzenstein & Barbara R. Chrispin, Social Entrepreneurship and a New Model for International Development in the 21st Century, 16 J. Dev. Entrepren. 87 (2011).

Abstract: In the last decade or so, there has been a growing interest in an area researchers are calling social entrepreneurship, a movement spearheaded by individuals with a desire to make the world a better place. This paper describes the structure and process of international development in Africa from the perspective of a social entrepreneur. The authors address the opportunities and challenges faced by social entrepreneurs as they attempt to affect large-scale social change. The result of this study is a unique development model that provides tools for the social entrepreneur to address problems and build capacity and sustainability within the African context.

Steffen Korsgaard, Opportunity Formation in Social Entrepreneurship, 5 J. Enterprising Communities: People and Places in the Global Econ. 265 (2011), also available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2008671.

Abstract (from author): The purpose of this paper is to explore the concept of opportunity and its role in social entrepreneurship processes. The paper presents a single-case study of a sustainable community in Denmark. The data include interviews, documents and television programmes. Findings – The case study finds that the opportunity takes a number of different forms in the process. These different forms are the result of a continuous mobilization of actors. On the basis of these findings a model of social entrepreneurship processes is proposed, where the process is driven by mobilization and transformation. The findings of the case provide support for a creation view of opportunities and the view that opportunity discovery does not necessarily precede resource mobilization. The proposed model contributes to the development of the creation view of opportunities as an alternative to the discovery view and to understanding of the role of opportunities in the social entrepreneurship process. The findings suggest that the social entrepreneur is one who actively creates external circumstances rather than responds to opportunities already present therein. This implies a focus on different skills and ways of thinking. The paper presents a model of social entrepreneurship processes grounded in a deep understanding of an empirical setting. The findings and model question the value of the discovery view of opportunities in the field of social entrepreneurship, while contributing to the development of the creation view of opportunities.

Othmar Manfred Lehner, Crowdfunding Social Ventures: A Model and Research Agenda (2012), available at  http://ssrn.com/abstract=2102525.

Abstract (by author):  Crowdfunding (CF) in a social entrepreneurship context is praised in narrations for its multifaceted potential - to access much needed financial resources, to gain legitimacy through crowd participation, and to further tap the crowd as a resource for numerous activities of the venture. From an academic point of view however, little has been written about CF as a whole, and inquiries from the social entrepreneurship sphere are so far mostly concerned with CF donations. In order to overcome the scarcity of the resource ‘crowd’ being asked for gifts, new approaches, including tailored reward systems, more structured bond-like investments and equity based CF are experimented with. Finance literature scarcely addresses these new forms, and no article so far shows concern for the idiosyncrasies of social ventures and the differing rationale of the social entrepreneurs and investors in CF activities. This paper thus sets out to first review existing literature on financing social ventures as well as on crowdfunding. Based upon the findings, the author subsequently draws up an early scheme of CF in order to structure future inquiries and to provide a common ground for discussion. Based upon the two streams, and in reflection to perspectives from traditional finance, a research agenda of eight themes for CF of social ventures is set up. The themes proposed are: investor types and utility-functions; corporate governance and structure in CF ventures; investor relations, risk and disclosure; applications and comparative approaches; network tie formation; legitimacy, institutions and democracy; challenging finance metrics; and legal and regulative hurdles for equity and debt CF.

Othmar M. Lehner, The Phenomenon of Social Enterprise in Austria: A Triangulated Descriptive Study (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1913326.

Abstract (from author): There is little to no existing research on the phenomenon of social enterprises (SEs) in Austria. To enable subsequent comparative studies, the author first traces social enterprises' conceptual underpinnings from most current research found in leading journals and subsequently creates a framework based upon social origins theory for use on Austria's social enterprises. In order to validate the findings, the author employs a triangulated research approach, including an online-based survey, semi-structured interviews and two panel discussions. Social enterprises in Austria are characterized through social activities, organizational types, legal forms, the society sector, the outcome emphasis, and the strategic development base. The social entrepreneur him/herself was included as a source for a qualitative triangulation as well as a distinctive item. Austria's SEs are found to work in a multitude of fields, are independent, use market-based approaches, employ improvisation and innovation for the creation of social good and incorporate a strong entrepreneurial spirit.

Othmar M. Lehner & Juha Kansikas, Opportunity Recognition in Social Entrepreneurship: A Thematic Meta Analysis, 21 J. Entrepren. 25 (2012).

Abstract (from authors): Opportunity recognition (OR) is at the very heart of entrepreneurship. However, research on OR in the context of social entrepreneurship is still in its early stages. First, this article identifies, codifies and analyses OR-relevant articles on social entrepreneurship (SE) through the lens of Sarasvathy’s three views of entrepreneurial opportunity recognition. In the second step, statistical methods are applied on the results to indicate possible correlations among different schools of thought in SE and views on OR. OR in social ventures is found to be a prevalent topic in SE literature and differences in OR between social and commercial ventures are found.

Iva Light & Léo‐Paul Dana, Boundaries of Social Capital in Entrepreneurship, 37 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 603 (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2253123.

 Abstract (by authors): This research begins with a theoretical critique of the social capital literature, and then focuses on Old Harbor, Alaska. In this remote outpost, mainly populated by Alutiiq people, all entrepreneurs selfidentified as EuroAmericans or multiethnic, not Alutiiq. Although Alutiiq people have abundant social capital, which they employed for economic purposes, they did not employ their social capital for commercial entrepreneurship. Our findings suggest that social capital promotes entrepreneurship only when supportive cultural capital is in place.

Johanna Mair, Social Entrepreneurship: Taking Stock and Looking Ahead (2010), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1729642.

Abstract (from the author): This essay sets out to take stock of existing endeavors to conceptualize Social Entrepreneurship. We illustrate the context-specific nature of the phenomenon and derive implications for fostering social entrepreneurship as a positive force for social and economic development. The paper has two main objectives: first, to stimulate a productive agenda for future research that goes beyond questions of 'who' and 'what' by pursuing the important considerations of 'where', 'why' and 'how'; and second, in so doing, to generate real insights for advances in both theory and practice.

R. Marshall, Conceptualizing the International For-Profit Social Entrepreneur. 98 J. Bus. Ethics 183 (2011).

Abstract (from the author ): This article looks at social entrepreneurs that operate for- profit and internationally, offering that international for-profit social entrepreneurs (IFPSE) are of a unique type. Initially, this article utilizes the entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, and international entrepreneurship literatures to develop a definition of the IFPSE. Next, a proposed model of the IFPSE is built utilizing the dimensions of mindset, opportunity recognition, social networks, and outcomes. Case studies of three IFPSE are then used to examine the proposed model. In the final section, findings from the case studies are used to examine the proposed model and more fully elucidate the dimensions of the IFPSE.

Ashish Mathur, Social Entrepreneurs and the Vision to Build the Society with Ethical Sustainability, 2 Info. Mgmt. & Bus. R. 154 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from the author): Social entrepreneurship is related to promoting the activities on low profit or no profit to benefit the weaker sections in such a way that they are can live a better life. The leadership and decision-making have to be in the interest of society and for the future too. The world of social entrepreneurship is created by the values of self efficiency with the faith to build an honest world of hope and respect... the basic qualities guiding the social entrepreneurial behavior to form the business empires depends on the quality of social and moral judgment supported by the social norms. The society in turn supports people who work for the benefit of human survival so that the future is built on the values of sustainability and trust and hope. The generations to come, need the resources for the growth of the society and civilization as a whole. They should use them in such a way that they are able to build the source for sustainable management of resources and for the larger benefit of the society. The basic aim of this paper is to analyze issues and trends associated with social fairness and to frame a strategic base for the better design of the social entrepreneurship variables. The basic objective of this paper is to identify entrepreneurship abilities that shape social entrepreneurial behavior.

Jeffrey S. McMullen, Delineating the Domain of Development Entrepreneurship: A Market-Based Approach to Facilitating Inclusive Economic Growth, 35 Entrepreneurship: Theory & Prac. 185 (2011).

Abstract (from the author ): Development economists and management scholars have called for a more market-based approach to address the extreme poverty suffered by the billion people residing primarily in least developed countries. This article proposes a theory of development entrepreneurship that blends business entrepreneurship, social entrepreneurship, and institutional entrepreneurship to accelerate the institutional change necessary to make economic growth more inclusive. After examining various explanations of market failure in the base of the pyramid and social entrepreneurship literatures, the author explains why entrepreneurial transformation of formal institutions is needed and what differentiates development entrepreneurship from related concepts such as social entrepreneurship, social business entrepreneurship, and socio-political activism.

Michael H. Morris, Understanding the Manifestation of Entrepreneurial Orientation in the Nonprofit Context, 35 Entrepren. Theory & Prac. 947 (2011).

Abstract (adapted from journal): The nonprofit sector serves an increasingly important entrepreneurial role in the economy. Scholars have taken an interest in entrepreneurship in nonprofits and have drawn upon entrepreneurial orientation (EO) as a methodological tool to advance knowledge in this domain. However, the nonprofit context differs from the for-profit context for which the EO scale was developed, particularly with regard to motivations, processes, and outcomes. The aauthors propose a new approach for capturing the manifestation of EO in the nonprofit context. A typology is presented to highlight the multiple facets of EO in the nonprofit context. The authors conclude with implications for scholars and practitioners.

Scott L. Newbert, Marketing Amid the Uncertainty of the Social Sector: Do Social Entrepreneurs Follow Best Marketing Practices?, 31 J. Pub. Pol. & Marketing, 75 (2012).

Abstract (from author): In a recent study in Journal of Marketing, Read et al. (2009) conduct an experiment to identify how experts approach marketing in uncertain, entrepreneurial contexts. In response, the current study adapts Read et al.'s model slightly to make it relevant to practicing entrepreneurs and tests it on a randomized database of experts and novices in the process of creating for-profit organizations in the United States. The results suggest that these best marketing practices are largely reflective of those employed by practitioners. The author then conducts tests to determine the degree to which social entrepreneurs employ these best marketing practices. The results suggest that social entrepreneurs are less likely than commercial entrepreneurs to implement several best marketing practices.

Abiola Kemi Ogunyemi, Touching Lives: Social Responsibility Model of a Nigerian Entrepreneur (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1795371.

Abstract (from the author): Dees (1998) defines entrepreneurship as characteristic of people who adopt a mission to create and sustain social value; recognize and relentlessly pursue new opportunities to serve that mission; continuously innovate, adapt, and learn; act boldly and beyond their resources; and exhibit a high sense of accountability. He sees it as a solution to social issues left unresolved by government and philanthropists.

Given the success of the social work carried out by Nike Davies Okundaye, a female Nigerian artist and entrepreneur, this paper investigates how her brand of social entrepreneurship measures up beside the extant literature, and whether it is replicable, especially in developing countries. If it is a good model, then it should be emulated and funding.

The approach used is phenomenology, using secondary data about Nike’s work and parameters synthesized by Dees (1998) and Light (2005) seven years apart after deep analyses of the work of earlier scholars.

Amina Omrane, Social Entrepreneurship and Sustainable Development: The Role of Business Models (2013), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2232438.

Abstract (by author): Faced with challenges raised by sustainable development, several nations, and …  other social actors, are questioning their roles and wish to take proactive approaches of social responsibility. However, in general they have few means to achieve their objectives. The purpose of this communication is to show that social entrepreneurship, as an assistance tool for the government and applied to the resolution of social problems, can provide an analysis framework in order to provide a response to the challenges of sustainable development. In order to achieve this, we have to show the usefulness of the different business models developed in social entrepreneurship, particularly in the European context. We conclude that social business models constitute a basic relay that allows social entrepreneurs to contribute actively to sustainable development.

Michael Pirson, Social Entrepreneurs as the Paragons of Shared Value Creation? A Critical Perspective (Fordham University School of Business Research Paper No. 2011-001), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1753908.

Abstract (from the author - adapted): The financial crisis of 2007/08 has caused many to question the basic premises of the current business system. Porter and Kramer writing in 2011 have suggested that the purpose of the corporation needs to be redefined. They posit that the corporation, rather than merely pursuing financial value creation set out to pursue shared value creation. They further declare Social Entrepreneurs the paragons of said shared value creation. In this paper I critically analyze the pathway of shared value creation in three leading social enterprises. Employing a genealogical perspective I highlight that every innovative shared value creating venture ended up opting out of shared value creation strategies and embraced either financial or social value primacy strategies. As such I question the power of the shared value creation notion.

Steven Prokesch, The Reluctant Social Entrepreneur, 2011 Harv. Bus. Rev. 124.

Abstract:  The article focuses on social entrepreneur Kathy Giusti, who started the nonprofit organizations Multiple Myeloma Research Foundation (MMRF) and Multiple Myeloma Research Consortium. While she was working for pharmaceutical company Searle, she learned she had myeloma, which has no cure and would kill her in three to four years.  The article describes her use of her personal network, including Searle copresident Alan Heller and her sister Karen Andrews, then a lawyer at subsidiary corporation Time Inc. It talks about several drugs that have proven effective in treating myeloma, including thalidomide and proteasome inhibitors.

Masud Ibn Rahman, Ruman Parveen, Muhammad Mohiuddin & Zhan Su, Motivational Factors Influencing Social Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1737304.

Abstract (from the author): Growing interest has been observed regarding social entrepreneurs in existing literature. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the widely accepted motivational factors have influence on entrepreneurial process of social entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. It concludes that some of those factors have significant influence while others has less or non-significant influence on Bangladeshi social entrepreneurs. This paper also complements the lack of empirical investigation in the behavioral aspect of social entrepreneurship in Bangladesh.

Masad Rahman, Motivational Factors Influencing Social Entrepreneurship in Bangladesh (2011), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=1737304.

Abstract (from author): Growing interest has been observed regarding social entrepreneurs in existing literature. The purpose of this study is to examine whether the widely accepted motivational factors have influence on entrepreneurial process of social entrepreneurs in Bangladesh. It concludes that some of those factors have significant influence while others have less or non-significant influence on Bangladeshi social entrepreneurs. This paper also complements the lack of empirical investigation in the behavioral aspect of social entrepreneurship in Bangladesh.

Nthati M. Rametse & Hetal Shah, Investigating Social Entrepreneurship in Developing Countries (2012), available at http://ssrn.com/abstract=2176557.

 Abstract (by authors): Social entrepreneurship has drawn interest from global policy makers and social entrepreneurs to target developing countries. Generally, not-for-profit organizations, funded by government and donor grants have played a significant role in poverty alleviation.  The authors argue that, by applying entrepreneurial concepts, organizations can create social value, hence mitigate poverty. This is a theoretical paper that builds upon a multi-dimensional model in analyzing how three social enterprises from India and Kenya create social value to address social problems. The findings suggest that whilst the social mission is central to all these organizations, they also create social value through innovation and pro-activeness. Additionally, the cultural and political environmental contexts hinder their attempt to create social value. Building networks and partnerships to achieve social value creation is vital for these organizations. Policy makers should devise policies that would assist social enterprises to achieve development goals.

Lee A. Swanson & David D. Zhang, Complexity Theory and the Social Entrepreneurship Zone, Emergence: Complexity & Org., July 2011, at 39.

Abstract (adapted from journal): Social entrepreneurship is a relatively new field of study. In this paper the authors examine Swanson and Zhang’s (2010) social entrepreneurship zone through a complexity theory lens. Complexity thinking can provide researchers with a new and fresh method of inquiry as they strive to enhance the research outcomes available through traditional research methods. In this article, the authors review literature on social entrepreneurship and complexity theory. The authors then apply a fresh and new point of view on social entrepreneurship by infusing a complexity perspective with the social entrepreneurship zone model while suggesting important research questions which can be addressed with this new framework.

Jeremy P. Thornton, John Gonas & Franz T. Lohrke, The Social Entrepreneur as Trailblazer: A Non-Normative Role for Social Enterprise in a Market Economy (2012), available at: http://ssrn.com/abstract=2172807.

Abstract (by authors): This paper offers an alternative to the normative rationale for social entrepreneurship. The authors draw from the nonprofit economics literature to develop a simple theoretical model of a social entrepreneur as a profit-deviating firm. They then demonstrate how profit deviation lowers the effective cost of the firm, allowing it to recognize opportunities and enter markets previously considered unsuitable by the neoclassical entrepreneur. In doing so, the social entrepreneur generates knowledge spillovers by providing valuable ex-post entry information regarding the expected costs of a venture. In this sense, the social entrepreneur provides a public good to latent neoclassical entrepreneurs, who then may enter markets previously considered unprofitable. The authors then illustrate the range of market conditions that are relevant for the social entrepreneur and offer a simple case study illustration of the model.

Chitvan Trivedi & Daniel Stokols, Social Enterprises and Corporate Enterprises: Fundamental Differences and Defining Features, 20 J. Entrepreneurship 1 (2011).

Abstract: To date, most efforts to define social entrepreneurship have focused on adapting existing management theories on entrepreneurship and non-profits rather than distinguishing the organizational purposes and structure of social entrepreneurship from traditional for-profit organizations. There is little consensus among academicians and practitioners alike as to what social entrepreneurship is and what it is not. To articulate a clear and non-ambiguous definition of social entrepreneurship, it is necessary first to understand the distinguishing features of social entrepreneurial ventures compared with corporate entrepreneurial ventures and non-profit organizations. This article differentiates these ventures in terms of their motives, goals, antecedent conditions, processes, role of the entrepreneur and outcomes. In doing so, it provides a brief summary of the state of knowledge in the emerging field of social entrepreneurship and raises new questions and hypotheses for future research on this topic.

Colin C. Williams & Sara Nadin, Re-reading Entrepreneurship in the Hidden Economy: Commercial or Social Entrepreneurs?, 14 Int'l J. Entrepren. & Small Bus. 441 (2011).

Abstract (from journal): Since the turn of the millennium, a small but growing stream of the entrepreneurship literature has drawn attention to how a large proportion of entrepreneurs start-up their enterprises operating in the hidden economy on a wholly or partially off-the-books basis. This paper evaluates critically the assumption that these hidden entrepreneurs are engaged in commercial entrepreneurship. Reporting evidence from a 2002-2003 survey involving interviews with 28 early-stage entrepreneurs operating in the hidden economy in English rural localities, the finding is that hidden entrepreneurs range from rational economic actors pursuing a purely commercial goal through to purely social entrepreneurs pursuing solely social logics, with the majority somewhere in-between combining both commercial and social goals. The outcome is a call to begin mapping the heterogeneous logics of hidden entrepreneurs in different contexts.

Densil A. Williams & Kadamawe A.K. K'nife, The Dark Side of Social Entrepreneurship, 16 Int'l J. Entrepren. 69 (2012).

Abstract (from authors): This paper is conceptual in its outlook. It provides a new lens through which scholars in the emerging field of social entrepreneurship should view the concept in order to come to a better understanding of the field. It raises the question as to whether or not all enterprises that deliver a social service can be duly classified as social enterprise and be linked to the wider field of social entrepreneurship. This question becomes relevant when the context within which the social service is being delivered is taken into consideration. Garrison communities in Jamaica provided the context within which the current paper analyses the question. The paper argues that the line between violence as a business, which generate funds to support enterprises that deliver social services to ensure power and control by gang leaders and, social enterprise, which deliver social services to transform lives through the creation of social value has become blurred. This, the authors call the dark side of social entrepreneurship and argue that the discourse on social entrepreneurship cannot ignore this phenomenon, especially in developing countries with a high number of vulnerable communities.

Dennis R. Young & Mary Clark Grinsfelder, Social Entrepreneurship and the Financing of Third Sector Organizations, 17 J. Pub. Affairs Ed. 543 (2011).

Abstract (from authors): In this paper, we review the literature on entrepreneurship and the skill sets required by entrepreneurs operating in different sectors of the economy.  Case studies from the social enterprise literature are examined in some detail. We search for distinctions between entrepreneurship in the business and public sectors and entrepreneurship in the nonprofit sector and relate this to the variations in financial support found among nonprofit sector organizations. We conclude that third sector social entrepreneurs are likely to require a different mix of skills than business entrepreneurs. In particular, political skills broadly defined, and the ability to secure and maintain charitable support, appear to be common to successful social enterprise ventures. Hence, taking too narrow a view of social entrepreneurship and social enterprise by confining it to the traditional business model of entrepreneurship constrains the potential benefits of developing social entrepreneurship in the third sector. This implies that education of potential social entrepreneurs should be broadly construed, combining business, public and nonprofit based instruction.

Shaker A. Zahra, Eric Gedajlovic, Donald O. Neubaum & Joel M. Shulman, A Typology of Social Entrepreneurs: Motives, Search Processes and Ethical Challenges, 24(5) J. Bus. Venturing 519 (2009).

Abstract (from authors): Social entrepreneurship has been the subject of considerable interest in the literature. This stems from its importance in addressing social problems and enriching communities and societies. In this Article, we define social entrepreneurship; discuss its contributions to creating social wealth; offer a typology of entrepreneurs'' search processes that lead to the discovery of opportunities for creating social ventures; and articulate the major ethical concerns social entrepreneurs might encounter. We conclude by outlining implications for entrepreneurs and advancing an agenda for future research, especially the ethics of social entrepreneurship.

Newspaper Articles

David Bornstein, A Light in India, The New York Times, January 20, 2011 http://opinionator.blogs.nytimes.com/2011/01/10/a-light-in-india/

Online Resources

Ashoka, Innovators for the Public 
www.ashoka.org

Blended Value
www.blendedvalue.org

Jerr Boschee, Boschee on marketing, a monthly column in the Social Enterprise Reporter
www.sereporter.com

The Chronicle of Philanthropy
www.philanthropy.com

James S. Coleman, Social Capital in the Creation of Human Capital, 94 Am. J.  Soc. 95 (1988). 
http://econ.tau.ac.il/papers/publicf/Zeltzer2.pdf

Abstract (from publisher): Coleman argues that the concept of social capital is way to inject the role of social structure into a rational actor paradigm as a "resource for action." Coleman argues that many sociological accounts offer little space for agency and that many economic accounts are too individualistic in their depictions but that social capital finds a way bringing the two by offering a depiction of social structure and its effects in ways that may be easier to integrate into a rational actor framework.

Community Wealth Ventures, Inc.
www.communitywealth.org

Enterprising Nonprofits Revenue Generation in the Nonprofit Sector.
http://www.socialreturns.org/factsfigures.asp

The Institute for Social Entrepreneurs
www.socialent.org

 

National Center on Nonprofit Enterprise (NCNE)
www.nationalcne.org

The NonProfit Times
www.nptimes.com

Nonprofit World
www.snpo.org

Roberts Enterprise Development Fund (REDF)
www.redf.org

Jeffrey A. Robinson & Jan Lo, Bibliography of Academic Papers on Social Entrepreneurship (January 12, 2005 draft).
http://www.spark.auckland.ac.nz/index.php?option=com_docman&task=doc_view&gid=15&Itemid=74

Schwab Foundation for Social Entrepreneurship (Geneva)
www.schwabfound.org

Skoll Centre for Social Entrepreneurship, Said Business School, Oxford University.
http://www.sbs.ox.ac.uk/centres/skoll/Pages/default.aspx

Skoll Foundation
www.skollfoundation.org

Social Enterprise Alliance
http://se-alliance.org/

Social Enterprise Reporter
www.sereporter.com

Social Venture Network (SVN)
www.svn.org

Other Materials

Jerr Boschee, Strategic Marketing for Social Entrepreneurs, adapted from a four-part series appearing originally in the Soc. Enter. Rep.(October 2005 - February 2006).

Arnold C. Cooper, William C. Dunkelberg & Carolyn Y. Woo, Survival and Failure: A Longitudinal Study, Wellesley, MA: Frontiers of Entrepreneurship Research, Babson College (1988).

Abraham M. George, Identifying Social Entrepreneurs Serving the Poor at the BoP, Working Papers (William Davidson Institute) -- University of Michigan Business School (2009).

Abstract (from author): The concept of social entrepreneurship as a characterization of social responsibility for business organizations has gained considerable popularity. There is growing belief in international development and donor communities that this form of for-profit activity might be the long-sought panacea for solving poverty at the so-called Base of the Pyramid (BoP) -- the poorest segment of the society. Yet, there is no consensus within these communities as to what constitutes social entrepreneurship, and how the BoP is defined. Confusion arises from the absence of generally accepted definitions for both terms, leaving much scope for some conventional for-profit activities to assert a higher social service status. This paper attempts to clarify what constitutes social entrepreneurship serving the BOP segment of the population, and how the BoP may be defined to better represent the poor.

Jill Kickul, S. D. Barbosa, Tatiana Iakovleva & Brett Smith, Sailing Around the World: Cultural and Environmental Influences on Entrepreneurial Risk Perceptions of Sinking-the-boat and Missing-the-boat, Chapel Hill, NC: 28th Babson-Kaufman Entrepreneurship Research Conference (2008) (ESP/MKT) paper.

Chyi-Lyi (Kathleen) Liang & Paul Dunn,The Impact of Starting a New Venture on the Entrepreneur and Their Family:  Expectations, Reality, and Willingness to Start Again (2002).

Kelly G. Shaver, Nancy M. Carter, William B. Gartner & Paul D. Reynolds,Who is a Nascent Entrepreneur? Decision Rules for Identifying and Selecting Entrepreneurs in the Panel Study of Entrepreneurial Dynamics, Paper presented at the Babson College/Kauffman Foundation Entrepreneurship Research Conference, Jonkoping, Sweden (June 2001).

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